Application of mixed starter culture for table olive production




Controlled fermentation, Mixed starter cultures, Table olive


The fermentation of olives is usually carried out spontaneously by natural microbiota. Spontaneous fermentation has some disadvantages, such as the formation of defects in the end product due to the activities of undesirable microorganisms. The use of starter cultures could be a promising option to provide a more controlled fermentation environment and to reduce the risk of spoilage. Mixed starter culture use (generally selected Lactobacillus strains with or without yeasts) could reduce pH in a shorter time, producing a higher amount of lactic acid and enhancing microbial safety compared to fermentation with starter cultures containing single species or natural fermentation. Their use could also enhance the organoleptical properties of table olives. Particularly the use of yeast (such as strains of W. anomolus, S. cerevisiae) in the fermentation of olives, in combination or sequentially with lactic acid bacteria could result in an increase in volatile compounds and a more aromatic final product.


Download data is not yet available.


Adebo OA, Njobeh PB, Adeboye AS, Adebiyi JA, Sobowale SS, Ogundele OM, Kayitesi E. 2018. Advances in fermentation technology for novel food products, in Panda SK and Shetty PH (Ed.) Innovations in Technologies for Fermented Food and Beverage Industries, Springer, Cham, pp. 71- 87.

Aktan N, Kalkan H. 1999. Sofralık Zeytin Teknolojisi. Ege Üniversitesi Basimevi, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

Angelis M de, Campanella D, Cosmai L, Summo C, Rizzello CG, Caponio F. 2015. Microbiota and metabolome of un-started and started Greek-type fermentation of Bella di Cerignola table olives. Food Microbiol. 52, 18-30. PMid:26338113

Aponte M, Blaiotta G, La Croce F, Mazzaglia A, Farina V, Settanni L, Moschetti G. 2012. Use of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria for Spanish-style table olive fermentation. Food Microbiol. 30, 8-16. PMid:22265277

Argyri AA, Zoumpopoulou G, Karatzas KAG, Tsakalidou E, Nychas GJE, Panagou EZ, Tassou CC. 2013. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests. Food Microbiol. 33, 282-291. PMid:23200662

Argyri AA, Nisiotou AA, Mallouchos A, Panagou EZ, Tassou CC. 2014. Performance of two potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains from the olive microbiota as starters in the fermentation of heat shocked green olives. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 171, 68-76. PMid:24334091

Arroyo-López FN, Querol A, Bautista-Gallego J, Garrido-Fernández A. 2008. Role of yeasts in table olive production. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 128, 189-196. PMid:18835502

Arroyo-López F, Romero-Gil V, Bautista-Gallego J, Rodríguez-Gómez F, Jiménez-Díaz R, García- García P, Querol A, Garrido-Fernández A. 2012a. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing. Front. Microbiol. 3, 1-4. PMid:22558000 PMCid:PMC3338231

Arroyo-López F, Romero-Gil V, Bautista-Gallego J, Rodríguez-Gómez F, Jiménez-Díaz R, García- García P, Querol A, Garrido-Fernández A. 2012b. Yeasts in table olive processing: desirable or spoilage microorganisms? Int. J. Food Microbiol. 160, 42-49. PMid:23141644

Bellis P de, Valerio F, Sisto A, Lonigro SL, Lavermicocca P. 2010. Probiotic table olives: microbial populations adhering on olive surface in fermentation sets inoculated with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1 in an industrial plant. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 140, 6-13. PMid:20226556

Benítez-Cabello A, Rodríguez-Gómez F, Morales M, Garrido-Fernández A, Jiménez-Díaz R, Arroyo- López F. 2019. Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Inocula Modulate the Volatile Profile of Spanish- Style Green Table Olive Fermentations. Foods 8, 280. PMid:31344875 PMCid:PMC6723112

Bevilacqua A, Beneduce L, Sinigaglia M, Corbo MR. 2013. Selection of yeasts as starter cultures for table olives. J. Food Sci. 78, 742-751. PMid:23574538

Bevilacqua A, De Stefano F, Augello S, Pignatiello S, Sinigaglia M, Corbo M. 2015. Biotechnological innovations for table olives. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 66, 127-131. PMid:25578760

Blana VA, Grounta A, Tassou CC, Nychas GJE, Panagou, EZ. 2014. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives. Food Microbiol. 38, 208-218. PMid:24290645

Bonatsou S, Benítez A, Rodríguez-Gómez F, Panagou EZ, Arroyo-López, FN. 2015. Selection of yeasts with multifunctional features for application as starters in natural black table olive processing. Food Microbiol. 46, 66-73. PMid:25475268

Bonatsou S, Tassou CC, Panagou EZ, Nychas GJE. 2017. Table olive fermentation using starter cultures with multifunctional potential. Microorganisms 5, 30. PMid:28555038 PMCid:PMC5488101

Boskou G, Salta FN, Chrysostomou S, Mylona A, Chiou A, Andrikopoulos, NK. 2006. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic profile of table olives from the Greek market. Food Chem. 94, 558-564.

Boskou D, Camposeo S, Clodoveo ML. 2015. Table olives as sources of bioactive compounds, in Boskou D (Ed.) Olive and Olive Oil Bioactive Constituents, AOCS Press, Urbana, pp. 217-259.

Botta C, Cocolin L. 2012. Microbial dynamics and biodiversity in table olive fermentation: culture-dependent and-independent approaches. Front. Microbiol. 3, 245. PMid:22783248 PMCid:PMC3390769

Cagno R di, Surico RF, Siragusa S, De Angelis M, Paradiso A, Minervini F, De Gara L, Gobbetti M. 2008. Selection and use of autochthonous mixed starter for lactic acid fermentation of carrots, French beans or marrows. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 127, 220-228. PMid:18710789

Campus M, Sedda P, Cauli E, Piras F, Comunian R, Paba A, Daga E, Schirru S, Angioni A, Zurru R, Bandino G. 2015. Evaluation of a single strain starter culture, a selected inoculum enrichment, and natural microflora in the processing of Tonda di Cagliari natural table olives: Impact on chemical, microbiological, sensory and texture quality. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 64, 671-677.

Campus M, Cauli E, Scano E, Piras F, Comunian R, Paba A, Daga E, Di Salvo R, Sedda P, Angioni A, Zurru R. 2017. Towards controlled fermentation of table olives: lab starter driven process in an automatic pilot processing plant. Food Bioproc. Tech. 10, 1063- 1073.

Campus M, Değirmencioğlu N, Comunian R. 2018. Technologies and trends to improve table olive quality and safety. Front. Microbiol. 9, 617. PMid:29670593 PMCid:PMC5894437

Castro A de, Montaño A, Casado FJ, Sánchez AH, Rejano L. 2002. Utilization of Enterococcus casseliflavus and Lactobacillus pentosus as starter cultures for Spanish-style green olive fermentation. Food Microbiol. 19, 637-644.

Charoenprasert S, Mitchell A. 2014. Influence of California-style black ripe olive processing on the formation of acrylamide. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62, 8716-8721. PMid:25110929

Chranioti C, Kotzekidou P, Gerasopoulos D. 2018. Effect of starter cultures on fermentation of naturally and alkali-treated cv. Conservolea green olives. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 89, 403- 408.

Chytiri A, Tasioula-Margari M, Bleve G, Kontogianni VG, Kallimanis A, Kontominas MG. 2019. Effect of different inoculation strategies of selected yeast and LAB cultures on Conservolea and Kalamàta table olives considering phenol content, texture, and sensory attributes. J. Sci. Food Agric. 100, 926-935. PMid:31523827

Ciafardini G, Zullo BA. 2019. Use of selected yeast starter cultures in industrial-scale processing of brined Taggiasca black table olives. Food Microbiol. 84, 103-250. PMid:31421771

Comunian R, Ferrocino I, Paba A, Daga E, Campus M, Di Salvo R, Cauli E, Piras F, Zurru R, Cocolin L. 2017. Evolution of microbiota during spontaneous and inoculated Tonda di Cagliari table olives fermentation and impact on sensory characteristics. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 84, 64- 72.

Corsetti A, Perpetuini G, Schirone M, Tofalo R, Suzzi G. 2012. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies. Front. Microbiol. 3, 248.

Değirmencioğlu, N. 2016. Modern techniques in the production of table olives, in Boskou D and Clodoveo MK (Ed.) Products from Olive Tree, IntechOpen, pp. 215.

García PG, Barranco CR, Durán-Quintana MC, Fernández AG. 2004. Biogenic amine formation and "zapatera" spoilage of fermented green olives: effect of storage temperature and debittering process. J. Food Prot. 67, 117-123. PMid:14717361

Grounta A, Panagou EZ. 2014. Mono and dual species biofilm formation between Lactobacillus pentosus and Pichia membranifaciens on the surface of black olives under different sterile brine conditions. Ann. Microbiol. 64, 1757-1767.

Grounta A, Doulgeraki AI, Nychas GJE, Panagou EZ. 2016. Biofilm formation on Conservolea natural black olives during single and combined inoculation with a functional Lactobacillus pentosus starter culture. Food Microbiol. 56, 35- 44. PMid:26919816

Heperkan D. 2013. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters. Front. Microbiol. 4, 143. PMid:23781216 PMCid:PMC3679444

Hesseltine, CW. 1992. Mixed Culture Fermentations. Applications of Biotechnology in Traditional Fermented Foods. Applications of Biotechnology in Traditional Fermented Foods, National Academies Press, Washington, Available from: https://www.

Hurtado A, Reguant C, Bordons A, Rozès N. 2010. Evaluation of a single and combined inoculation of a Lactobacillus pentosus starter for processing cv. Arbequina natural green olives. Food Microbiol. 27, 731-740. PMid:20630314

Hurtado A, Reguant C, Bordons A, Rozès N. 2012. Lactic acid bacteria from fermented table olives. Food Microbiol. 31, 1-8. PMid:22475936

IOOC 2004. Trade Standard Applying to Table Olives. International Olive Oil Council COI/T20/ Doc No 1. Madrid: IOOC.

Kumral A, Basoglu F, Sahin I. 2009. Effect of the use of different lactic starters on the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of naturally black table olives of Gemlik cultivar. J. Food Process. Pres. 33, 651-664.

Johnson RL, Mitchell AE. 2018. Reducing Phenolics Related to Bitterness in Table Olives. J. Food Qual. 1-12.

Lanza B. 2013. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation. Front. Microbiol. 4, 1-7. PMid:23675370 PMCid:PMC3650464

Malheiro R, Casal S, Sousa A, De Pinho PG, Peres AM, Dias LG, Bento A, Pereira J. 2012. Effect of cultivar on sensory characteristics, chemical composition, and nutritional value of stoned green table olives. Food Bioproc. Tech. 5, 1733-1742.

Marsilio V, Seghetti L, Iannucci E, Russi F, Lanza B, Felicioni M. 2005. Use of a lactic acid bacteria starter culture during green olive (Olea europaea L cv Ascolana tenera) processing. J. Sci. Food Agr. 85, 1084-1090.

Ozdemir Y, Guven E, Ozturk A. 2014. Understanding the characteristics of oleuropein for table olive processing. J. Food Process Technol. 5, 1000328.

Panagou EZ, Schillinger U, Franz CM, Nychas GJE. 2008. Microbiological and biochemical profile of cv. Conservolea naturally black olives during controlled fermentation with selected strains of lactic acid bacteria. Food Microbiol. 25, 348-358. PMid:18206777

Papadelli M, Zoumpopoulou G, Georgalaki M, Anastasiou R, Manolopoulou E, Lytra I, Papadimitriou K, Tsakalidou E. 2015. Evaluation of Two Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures for the Fermentation of Natural Black Table Olives (Olea europaea L cv. Kalamon). Pol. J. Microbiol. 64, 265-271.

Perpetuini G, Caruso G, Urbani S, Schirone M, Esposto S, Ciarrocchi A, Prete R, Garcia- Gonzalez N, Battistelli N, Gucci R, Servili M, Tofalo R, Corsetti A. 2018. Changes in polyphenolic concentrations of table olives (cv. Itrana) produced under different irrigation regimes during spontaneous or inoculated fermentation. Front. Microbiol. 9, 1287. PMid:29963031 PMCid:PMC6013719

Perricone M, Bevilacqua A, Corbo MR, Sinigaglia M. 2010. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum and glucose to control the fermentation of "Bella di Cerignola" table olives, a traditional variety of Apulian region (southern Italy). J. Food Sci. 75, 430-436. PMid:21535552

Pino A, De Angelis M, Todaro A, Van Hoorde K, Randazzo CL, Caggia C. 2018. Fermentation of Nocellara Etnea table olives by functional starter cultures at different low salt concentrations. Front. Microbiol. 9, 1125. PMid:29922251 PMCid:PMC5996112

Pino A, Vaccalluzzo A, Solieri L, Romeo F, Todaro A, Caggia C, Arroyo-López F, Bautista-Gallego J, Randazzo C. 2019. Effect of Sequential Inoculum of Beta-Glucosidase Positive and Probiotic Strains on Brine Fermentation to Obtain Low Salt Sicilian Table Olives. Front. Microbiol. 10, 174. PMid:30800110 PMCid:PMC6376858

Pistarino E, Aliakbarian B, Casazza AA, Paini M, Cosulich ME, Perego P. 2013. Combined effect of starter culture and temperature on phenolic compounds during fermentation of Taggiasca black olives. Food Chem. 138, 2043-2049. PMid:23411341

Psani M, Kotzekidou P. 2006. Technological characteristics of yeast strains and their potential as starter adjuncts in Greek-style black olive fermentation. World J. Microb. Biot. 22, 1329- 1336.

Randazzo CL, Todaro A, Pino A, Pitino I, Corona O, Mazzaglia A, Caggia C. 2014. Giarraffa and Grossa di Spagna naturally fermented table olives: effect of starter and probiotic cultures on chemical, microbiological and sensory traits. Food Res. Int. 62, 1154-1164.

Randazzo CL, Todaro A, Pino A, Pitino I, Corona O, Caggia C. 2017. Microbiota and metabolome during controlled and spontaneous fermentation of Nocellara Etnea table olives. Food Microbiol. 65, 136-148. PMid:28399996

Randazzo CL, Russo N, Pino A, Mazzaglia A, Ferrante M, Conti GO, Caggia C. 2018. Effects of selected bacterial cultures on safety and sensory traits of Nocellara Etnea olives produced at large factory scale. Food Chem. Toxicol. 115, 491-498. PMid:29625158

Ruiz-Barba JL, Jiménez-Díaz R. 2012. A novel Lactobacillus pentosus-paired starter culture for Spanish-style green olive fermentation. Food Microbiol. 30, 253-259. PMid:22265309

Sabatini N, Mucciarella MR, Marsilio V. 2008. Volatile compounds in uninoculated and inoculated table olives with Lactobacillus plantarum ( Olea europaea L., cv. Moresca and Kalamata). LWT- Food Sci. Technol. 41, 2017- 2022.

Sakouhi F, Harrabi S, Absalon C, Sbei K, Boukhchina S, Kallel H. 2008. α-Tocopherol and fatty acids contents of some Tunisian table olives (Olea europea L.): Changes in their composition during ripening and processing. Food Chem. 108, 833-839. PMid:26065742

Schaide T, Cabrera-Bañegil M, Pérez-Nevado F, Esperilla A, Martín-Vertedor D. 2019. Effect of olive leaf extract combined with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the fermentation process of table olives. J. Food Sci. Technol. 56, 3001-3013. PMid:31205355 PMCid:PMC6542927

Segovia-Bravo KA, López FA, García PG, Quintana MD, Fernández AG. 2007. Treatment of green table olive solutions with ozone. Effect on their polyphenol content and on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 114, 60-68. PMid:17174427

Sieuwerts S, De Bok FA, Hugenholtz J, van Hylckama-Vlieg JE. 2008. Unraveling microbial interactions in food fermentations: from classical to genomics approaches. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 4997-5007. PMid:18567682 PMCid:PMC2519258

Smid EJ, Lacroix C. 2013. Microbe-microbe interactions in mixed culture food fermentations. Curr. Opin. Biotech. 24, 148-154. PMid:23228389

Tataridou M, Kotzekidou P. 2015. Fermentation of table olives by oleuropeinolytic starter culture in reduced salt brines and inactivation of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 208, 122-130. PMid:26065729

Tsapatsaris S, Kotzekidou P. 2004. Application of central composite design and response surface methodology to the fermentation of olive juice by Lactobacillus plantarum and Debaryomyces hansenii. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95, 157-168. PMid:15282128

Tufariello M, Durante M, Ramires F, Grieco F, Tommasi L, Perbellini E, Falco V, Tasioula- Margari M, Logrieco A, Mita G, Bleve G. 2015. New process for production of fermented black table olives using selected autochthonous microbial resources. Front. Microbiol. 6, 1-15. PMid:26441932 PMCid:PMC4585182

Tufariello M, Mita G, Bleve G. 2016. Biotechnology can improve a traditional product as table olives, in Boskou D and Clodoveo MK (Ed.) Products from Olive Tree, IntechOpen, pp. 235-260.

Zaragoza J, Bendiks Z, Tyler C, Kable M, Williams T, Luchkovska Y, Chow E, Boundy-Mills K, Marco M. 2017. Effects of exogenous yeast and bacteria on the microbial population dynamics and outcomes of olive fermentations. mSphere. 2, 00315-316. PMid:28124026 PMCid:PMC5244262



How to Cite

Erdemir Tıraş Z, Kalkan Yıldırım H. Application of mixed starter culture for table olive production. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2021Jun.7 [cited 2021Oct.19];72(2):e405. Available from: