Kinetic modeling of oxidation parameters and activities of lipase-lipoxygenase in wheat germ oil




Activation energy, Kinetic parameters, Lipase enzyme, Oxidative stability


This study aimed to investigate the oxidation profile of wheat germ oil extracted from raw germ during the stabilization with microwave (MW) treatment, and the kinetics of the oxidation parameters (free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), α-tocopherol, lipase (LA) and lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes activities) under different storage conditions. For stabilizing raw germ, the MW was treated at 700 W for three minutes. The oxidation parameters for the kinetic modeling were analyzed at different storage times (0, 15, 30, 45, 60,75, 90, and 105. days) and storage temperatures (-18, 0, 4, and 25 °C). The parameters were mathematically modelled and the PV and LA fitted well to the zero-order kinetic model, while FFA with α-tocopherol and TBA followed the first and second-order kinetics, respectively. The kinetic constant (k) was described by an Arrhenius equation and the activation energy ranged from 5.72 to 18.5 kJ/mol for the stabilized germ.


Download data is not yet available.


Ali S, Usman S, Nasreen Z, Zahra N, Nazir S, Yasmeen A, Yaseen T. 2013. Nutritional evaluation and stabilization studies of wheat germ. Pak. J. Food Sci. 23, 148-152.

AOCS 1994. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 4th Edition. AOCS Press, Illinois.

Attia RS, Abou-Gharbia HA. 2011. Evaluation and stabilization of wheat germ and its oil characteristics. Alex J. Fd. Sci. Technol. 8, 31-39.

Bakkalbaşı E, Yılmaz ÖM, Javidipour I, Artık N. 2012. Effects of packaging materials, storage conditions and variety on oxidative stability of shelled walnuts. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 46, 203-209.

Capitani M, Mateo CM, Nolasco SM. 2011. Effect of temperature and storage time of wheat germ on the oil tocopherol concentration. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. 28, 243-250.

Ercoşkun H, Özkal SG. 2011. Kinetics of traditional Turkish sausage quality aspects during fermentation. Food Control 22 (2), 165-172.

Ge Y, Sun A, Ni Y, Cai T. 2000. Some nutritional and functional properties of defatted wheat germ protein. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 48, 6215-6218. PMid:11141279

Gili RD, Palavecino PM, Penci MC, Martinez ML, Ribotta PD. 2017. Wheat germ stabilization by infrared radiation. J. Food Sci. Technol. 54, 71-81. PMid:28242905 PMCid:PMC5305703

Gomez M, Gonzalez J, Oliete B. 2012. Effect of extruded wheat germ on dough rheology and bread quality. Food Bioprocess Technol. 5, 2409-2418.

Hygreeva D, Pandey MC, Radhakrishna K. 2012. A prelimınary study on evaluatıon of antıoxıdant actıvıty and oxıdatıve stabılıty of wheat germ oil in poultry and mutton meat systems. IJFANS 2, 40-46.

Jha PK, Kudachikar VB, Kumar S. 2013. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 86, 136-139.

Krings U, El-Saharty YS, El-Zeany BA, Pabel B, Berger RG. 2000. Antioxidant activity of extracts from roasted wheat germ. Food Chem. 71, 91-95.

Li B, Zhao L, Chen H, Sun D, Deng B, Li J, Liu Y, Wang F. 2016. Inactivation of lipase and lipoxygenase of wheat germ with temperature-controlled short wave infrared radiation and its effect on storage stability and quality of wheat germ oil. Plos One 11, 1-13. PMid:27936025 PMCid:PMC5147867

Marti A, Torri L, Casiraghi MC, Franzetti L, Limbo S, Morandin F, Pagani MA. 2014. Wheat germ stabilization by heat-treatment or sourdough fermentation: Effects on dough rheology and bread properties. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 59, 1100-1106.

Mahmoud AA, Mohdaly AA, Elneairy NA. 2015. Wheat germ: an overview on nutritional value, antioxidant potential and antibacterial characteristics. Food Nutr. Sci. 6, 265-277.

Megahed MG. 2011. Study on stability of wheat germ oil and lipase activity of wheat germ during periodical storage. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 2, 163-168.

Meriles SP, Steffolani ME, León AE, Penci MC, Ribotta PD. 2019. Physico-chemical characterization of protein fraction from stabilized wheat germ. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 28, 1327-1335. PMid:31695931 PMCid:PMC6811462

Orthoefer FT. 2005. Rice bran oil. Bailey's industrial oil and fat products.

Sjövall O, Virtalaine T, Lapveteläinen A, Kallio H. 2000. Development of rancidity in wheat germ analyzed by headspace gas chromatography and sensory analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3522-3527. PMid:10956143

Sudha ML, Srivastava AK, Leelavathi K. 2007. Studies on pasting and structural characteristics of thermally treated wheat germ. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 225, 351-357.

Srivastava AK, Sudha ML, Baskaran V, Leelavathi K. 2007. Studies on heat stabilized wheat germ and its influence on rheological characteristics of dough. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 224, 365-372.

Suresh Kumar G, Swathi R, Gopala Krishna AG. 2014. Fat-soluble nutraceuticals and their composition in heat-processed wheat germ and wheat bran. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 65, 327-334. PMid:24328437

Sørensen G, Jørgensen SS. 1996. A critical examination of some experimental variables in the 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test for lipid oxidation in meat products. Z. Lebensm. Unters Forsch. 202, 205-210.

Tarladgis BG, Watts BM, Younathan MT, Dugan L. 1960. A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 37 44-48.

Xu B, Zhou SL, Miao WJ, Gao C, Cai MJ, Dong Y. 2013. Study on the stabilization effect of continuous microwave on wheat germ. J. Food Eng. 117, 1-7.

Xu B, Wang LK, Miao WJ, Wu QF, Liu YX, Sun Y, Gao C. 2016. Thermal versus microwave inactivation kinetics of lipase and lipoxygenase from wheat germ. J. Food Process Eng. 39, 247-255.

Yöndem-Makascıoǧlu F, Gürün B, Dik T, Suzan Kıncal N. 2005. Use of a spouted bed to improve the storage stability of wheat germ followed in paper and polyethlyene packages. J. Sci. Food Agric. 85, 1329-1336.

Wray Derek, Ramaswamy HS. 2015. Novel concepts in microwave drying of foods. Drying Technol. 33 (7), 769-783.

Yılmaz N, Tuncel NB, Kocabıyık H. 2014. Infrared stabilization of rice bran and its effects on γ-oryzanol content, tocopherols and fatty acid composition. J. Sci. Food Agric. 94, 1568-1576. PMid:24166149

Zhu KX, Sun XH, Chen ZC, Peng W, Qian HF, Zhou HM. 2010. Comparison of functional properties and secondary structures of defatted wheat germ proteins separated by reverse micelles and alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation. Food Chem. 123, 1163-1169.

Zou Y, Gao Y, He H, Yang T. 2018. Effect of roasting on physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stability of wheat germ oil. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 90, 246-253.

Zhang YR, Zhou XQ, Guo Y R. 2008. Study on the technologıcal parameters of de actıvatıng enzyme ın wheat germ by mıcrowave. Journal of Henan University of Technol. (Natural Sci. Edt.) 2, 7-10.



How to Cite

Erim Köse Y. Kinetic modeling of oxidation parameters and activities of lipase-lipoxygenase in wheat germ oil. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2021Sep.24 [cited 2022Nov.26];72(3):e423. Available from: