Optimization of date seed oil extraction using the assistance of hydrothermal and ultrasound technologies





Date seed, Hydrothermal technology, Oil extraction, Oxidation stability, Response surface methodology, Sonication


The date seed is a by-product from the date industry. Its use as a source of added-value compounds is of great interest. Oil accounts for 5-13% of the seed’s weight. Soxhlet extraction with organic solvents is the traditional method for obtaining oil from seeds. In this work, hydrothermal pre-treatments and sonication are proposed to make the extraction a more environmentally friendly process. Factors such as sonication time and temperature and hexane-to-seed ratio (H/S) have been considered. Response surface methodology was applied for optimization. Hydrothermal treatments increased oil recovery. H/S was the most influential factor, and was close to 7 mL/g seeds for both samples. 71% recovery was achieved for native seeds after 15 min sonication at 45 ºC, and 80% for 180 ºC-treated seeds after 45 min at 35 ºC when compared to Soxhlet extraction. These conditions comply with our initial aim. Pre-treatments seem to have a negative effect on oil stability, although this observation needs to be confirmed.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullah M, Koc AB. 2013. Kinetics of ultrasound-assisted oil extraction from black seed (Nigella sativa). J. Food Proces. Preserv. 37, 814-823.

Al Ghezi NAS, Al-Mossawi AE-BHJ, Al-Rikabi AKJ. 2020. Antioxidants Activity of Date Seed Extraction of Some Date Varieties. Medico-legal Update 20, 922-928.

Ara K, Karami M, Raofie F. 2014. Application of response surface methodology for the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction of Capparis spinosa seed oil. J. Supercrit. Fluids 85, 173-182.

Barba JF, Zhu Z, Kouba M, Sant’Ana AS, Orlien V. 2016. Green alternative methods for the extraction of antioxidant bioactive compounds from winery wastes and by-products: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 49, 96-109.

Bassani CD, Nunes DS, Granato D. 2014. Optimization of Phenolics and Flavonoids Extraction Conditions and Antioxidant Activity of Roasted Yerba-Mate Leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae) using Response Surface Methodology. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 86, 923-934.

Basuny AMM, Al-Marzooq MA. 2011. Production of mayonnaise from date pit oil. Food Nutr. Sci. 2, 3-8.

Besbes S, Blecker C, Deroanne C, Drira NE, Attia H. 2004. Date seeds: chemical composition and characteristic profiles of the lipid fraction. Food Chem. 84, 577-584.

Bimakr M, Rahman RA, Taip FS, Adzahan NM, Sarker MZ, Ganjloo A. 2012. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition. Molecules, 17, 11748-11762.

Böger BR, Salviato A, Valezi DF, Di Mauro E, Georgetti SR, Kurozawa LE. 2018. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of grape-seed oil to enhance process yield and minimize free radical formation. J. Sci. Food. Agric. 98, 5019-5026.

Boukouada M, Ghiabaa Z, Gourineb N, Bombardac I, Saidia M, Yousfi M. 2014. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Seed oil of Two Algerian Date Palm Cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera). Nat. Prod. Commun. 9, 1777-1780.

Boussarsar H, Rogé B, Mathlouthi M. 2009. Optimization of sugarcane bagasse conversion by hydrothermal treatment for the recovery of xylose. Bioresource Technol. 100, 6537-6542.

Cravotto G, Bicchi C, Mantegna S, Binello A, Tomao V, Chemat F. 2011. Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques. Nat. Prod. Res. 25, 974-981.

Daoud A, Malika D, Bakari S, Hfaiedh N, Mnafgui K, Kadri A, Gharsallah N. 2015. Assessment of polyphenol composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of various extracts of Date Palm Pollen (DPP) from two Tunisian cultivars. Arab. J. Chem. 12, 3075-3086.

Djaoudene O, López V, Cásedas G, Les F, Schisano C, Bey MB, Tenore GC. 2019. Phoenix dactylifera L. seeds: a by-product as a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties. Food Funct. 10, 4953-4965.

Egüés I, Sanchez C, Mondragon I, Labidi J. 2012. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained by autohydrolysis of corn residues. Ind. Crops Prod. 36, 164-171.

El-Rahman SNA, Al-Mulhem SI. 2017. Characteristic Analysis, Antioxidant Components and Antioxidant Activity of Date Fruits, Date Seeds and Palm Shell. ACMCR, 1(1).

Fernández-Bolaños J, Rodríguez G, Gómez E, Guillén R, Jiménez A, Heredia A. 2004. Total recovery of the waste of two-phase olive oil processing: isolation of added-value compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 5849-5855.

Fuentes-Alventosa JM, Jaramillo-Carmona S, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G, Guillen-Bejarano R, Jiménez-Araujo A, Fernández-Bolaños J, Rodríguez-Arcos R. 2013. Preparation of bioactive extracts from asparagus by-product. Food Bioprod. Process. 91, 74-82.

Goula AM. 2013. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of pomegranate seed oil - Kinetic modeling. J. Food Engin. 117, 492-498.

Jaramillo-Carmona S, Rodríguez-Arcos R, Guillén-Bejarano R, Jiménez-Araujo A. 2019. Hydrothermal treatments enhance the solubility and antioxidant characteristics of dietary fiber from asparagus by-products. Food Bioprod. Process. 114, 175-184.

Kareem MO, Edathil AA, Rambabu K, Bharath G, Banat F, Nirmala GS, Sathiyanarayanan K. 2021. Extraction, characterization and optimization of high quality bio-oil derived from waste date seeds, Chem. Eng. Commun. 208, 801-811.

Kaufmann B, Christen P. 2002. Recent extraction techniques for natural products: Microwave-assisted extraction and pressurised solvent extraction. Phytochem. Anal. 13, 105-113.

Kchaou W, Abbès F, Blecker C, Attia H, Besbes S. 2013. Effects of extraction solvents on phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of Tunisian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Ind. Crops Prod. 45, 262-269.

Lama-Muñoz A, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G, Rubio-Senent F, Gómez-Carretero A, Fernández-Bolaños J. 2011. New hydrothermal treatment of alperujo enhances the content of bioactive minor components in crude pomace olive oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 1115-1123.

Lou, Z., Wang, H., Zhang, M., Wang Z. 2010. Improved extraction of oil from chickpea under ultrasound in a dynamic system. J. Food Engin. 98, 13-18.

Malićanin, M, Rac V, Antić V, Antić M, Palade LM, Kefalas P, Rakic V. 2014. Content of Antioxidants, Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Grape Seed Oil Obtained by Ultra Sound Assisted Extraction. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 91, 989-999.

Mrabet A, Jiménez-Araujo A, Guillén-Bejarano R, Rodríguez-Arcos R, Sindic M. 2020. Date seeds: a promising source of oil with functional properties. Foods 9, 787.

Mrabet A, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G, Guillén-Bejarano R, Rodríguez-Arcos R, Ferchichi A, Sindic M, Jiménez-Araujo A. 2015. Valorization of Tunisian secondary date varieties (Phoenix dactilyfera L.) by hydrothermal treatments: New fiber concentrates with antioxidant properties. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 60, 518-524.

Perrier A, Delsart C, Boussetta N, Grimi N, Citeau M, Vorobiev E. 2017. Effect of ultrasound and green solvents addition on the oil extraction efficiency from rapeseed flakes. Ultrason. Sonochem. 39, 58-65.

Rodríguez G, Rodríguez-Arcos R, Fernández-Bolaños J, Guillén R, Jiménez A. 2007. Antioxidant activity of effluents during the purification of hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol from olive oil waste. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 224, 733-41.

Rubio-Senent F, Martos S, Lama-Muñoz A, Fernández-Bolaños JG, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G, Fernández-Bolaños J. 2015. Isolation and identification of minor secoiridoids and phenolic components from thermally treated olive oil by-products. Food Chem. 187, 166-73.

Samaram S, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Ghazali HM, Bordbar S, Serjouie A. 2015. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from papaya seed by response surface methodology: oil recovery, radical scavenging antioxidant activity, and oxidation stability. Food Chem. 172, 7-17.

Sharif KM, Rahman MM, Azmir J, Mohamed A, Jahurul MHA, Sahena F, Zaidul ISM. 2014. Experimental Design of Supercritical Fluid Extraction - A Review. J. Food Engin. 124, 105-116.

Vinatoru M. 2001. An overview of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. Ultrason. Sonochem. 8, 303-313.

Wang L, Weller CL. 2006. Recent advances in extraction of nutraceuticals from plants. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17, 300-312.

Whitney SEC, Brigham JE, Darke AH, Reid JSG, Gidley MJ. 1998. Structural aspects of the interaction of mannan-based polysaccharides with bacterial cellulose. Carboh. Res. 307, 299-309.

Xuan TC, Hean CG, Hamzah H, Ghazali HM. 2017. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction to produce virgin avocado oil with low free fatty acids. J. Food Process. Engin. 41, e12656.



How to Cite

Mrabet A, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G, Guillén-Bejarano R, Rodríguez-Arcos R, Sindic M, Jiménez-Araujo A. Optimization of date seed oil extraction using the assistance of hydrothermal and ultrasound technologies. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2022May17 [cited 2022Jul.5];73(2):e457. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1929




Funding data

Université de Liège
Grant numbers P.AGABQSP01-02 (A.M.)

Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación
Grant numbers Project 25/Section II-2019;PCI2020-112088

Agencia Estatal de Investigación
Grant numbers Project 25/Section II-2019;PCI2020-112088

European Commission
Grant numbers Project 25/Section II-2019;PCI2020-112088