Effect of different extraction methods on saffron antioxidant activity, total phenolic and crocin contents and the protective effect of saffron extract on the oxidative stability of common vegetable oils
Keywords:Antioxidant activity, Microwave-assisted extraction, Oxidative stability, Saffron, Ultrasound-assisted extraction
Saffron consists of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties and is mainly used in medicine, flavoring and coloring. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of extraction methods on the antioxidant activity of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extracts (SE) and to evaluate the antioxidant performance of SE in vegetable oils. Saffron stigmas were extracted in water, ethanol, methanol, and their combinations using maceration extraction (ME), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and the combination of UAE with MAE. The results showed that the sample extracted by methanol/water (50:50) using the combination of UAE with MAE methods had the highest amount of total phenolic content (31.56 mg/g GAE) and antioxidant activity (83.24% inhibition). The extract with the highest antioxidant activity was freeze-dried before incorporation into oil samples. Freeze-dried SE contained trans-crocin-4 and trans-crocin-3 (most abundant constituents), kaempferol, and picrocrocin. Moreover, the addition of SE at 1000 ppm resulted in a significant increase in the oxidative stability of canola (CAO), sunflower (SO), and corn oil (COO).
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