Extraction of amaranth seed oil using subcritical butane and use of the generated cake for protein extraction





amaranth oil, subcritical butane, oil extraction, amaranth protein, Oil quality


The purpose of this research was to determine the technical feasibility of extracting amaranth seed oil with butane in a subcritical state and to take advantage of the cake generated. To this end, a type of non-germinated grain was characterized, oil was extracted from a germinated grain and the characterized one, the oil obtained was characterized, and the protein was extracted from the defatted cake of the non-germinated one. It was found that the non-germinated grain was made up of 13.33% protein, 7.24% fat, and 9.02% moisture, the optimum yield of this grain was 91%, for the germinated grain, a maximum value of 6.63% for oil mass. By comparing the characteristics of both oils, higher quality was found in the non-germinated oil, and the maximum protein extraction productivity was 5.15%. Thus, it has been concluded that this extraction method is technically feasible.


Download data is not yet available.


Arias-Giraldo S, López-Mejía M. 2021. Uses, nutritional properties and sensory evaluation for amaranth, quinoa and grape and coffee by-products. Ing. Compet. 24 (1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.25100/iyc.v24i1.11000

Bhargavi G, Nageswara Rao P, Renganathan S. 2018. Review on the Extraction Methods of Crude oil from all Generation Biofuels in last few Decades. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 330 (1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/330/1/012024

Calderón-Vásquez S. 2017. Estudio Físico- Químico del Grano de Amaranto (Amaranthus caudatus), Variedad Óscar Blanco para su Aprovechamiento con Fines Industriales. Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz. http://repositorio.umsa.bo/xmlui/handle/123456789/12117

Castel MV. 2010. Estudio de las propiedades funcionales, tecnológicas y fisiológicas de las proteínas de amaranto. Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. http://hdl.handle.net/11185/212

Cordero de los Santos MY, Osuna-Castro JA, Borodanenko A, Paredes-López O. 2005. Physicochemical and functional characterisation of amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) protein isolates obtained by isoelectric precipitation and micellisation. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 11 (4), 269-280. https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013205056491

Das D, Mir NA, Chandla NK, Singh S. 2021. Combined effect of pH treatment and the extraction pH on the physicochemical, functional and rheological characteristics of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed protein isolates. Food Chem. 353 (3), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129466 PMid:33735770

Gu LB, Liu XN, Liu HM, Pang HL, Qin GY. 2017. Extraction of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) seed oil using subcritical butane: Characterization and process optimization. Molec. 22 (2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22020228 PMid:28157172 PMCid:PMC6155872

Han JH, Wu QF, Xu B, Zhou SL, Ding F. 2016. Quality characteristics of soybean germ oil obtained by innovative subcritical butane experimental equipment. Qual. Assur. Saf. Crop. Foods. 8 (3), 369-377. https://doi.org/10.3920/QAS2015.0625

Hernández C, Mieres Pitre A. 2005. Rendimiento de la extracción por prensado en frío y refinación física del aceite de la almendra del fruto de la Palma Corozo (Acrocomia aculeata). Rev. Ing. Uc. 12, 68-75. http://www.ciiq.org/varios/peru_2005/Trabajos/IV/7/4.7.02.pdf

Hernandez R, Herrerías G. 1998. Amaranto: Historia Y Promesa. Horiz. del tiempo. 1, 1-18.

Krist S. 2020. Vegetable Fats and Oils. Springer Nature Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30314-3

Le Clef E, Kemper T. 2015. Sunflower: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization. AOCS Press.

Luis GM, Hernández-Hernández RB, Caballero VP, Torres-López G, Adrián V, Martínez E, Pacheco LR. 2018. Current and potential uses of Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). J. Negat. No Posit. Results. 3 (6), 423-436.

Nasirpour-Tabrizi P, Azadmard-Damirchi S, Hesari J, Piravi-Vanak Z. 2020. Nutritional Value of Amaranth. Intech Open.

Riggins CW, Mumm RH. 2021. Amaranths. Curr. Biol. 31 (13), 834-835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.05.058 PMid:34256911

Salcedo-Chávez B, Osuna-Castro JA, Guevara-Lara F, Domínguez-Domínguez J, Paredes-López O. 2002. Optimization of the Isoelectric Precipitation Method To Obtain Protein Isolates from Amaranth ( Amaranthus cruentus ) Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 6515-6520. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020522t PMid:12381143

Sun J, Shi J, Mu Y, Zhou S, Chen Z, Xu B. 2018. Subcritical butane extraction of oil and minor bioactive components from soybean germ: Determination of migration patterns and a kinetic model. J. Food Process Eng. 41 (5), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12697

Venskutonis PR, Kraujalis P. 2013. Nutritional Components of Amaranth Seeds and Vegetables: A Review on Composition, Properties, and Uses. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 12 (4), 381-412. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12021 PMid:33412681

Westerman D, Santos RCD, Bosley JA, Rogers JS, & Al-Duri B. 2006. Extraction of Amaranth seed oil by supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Supercrit. Fluids. 37 (1), 38-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2005.06.012

Xu L, Ye L, Qiu R, Qin G, Huang X. 2015. Extraction process and quality research of macadamia nut oil by subcritical butane. J. Chinese Cereal. Oils Assoc. 30 (6), 79-83.



How to Cite

Rivas-Torrico P, Luján-Pérez M. Extraction of amaranth seed oil using subcritical butane and use of the generated cake for protein extraction. Grasas aceites [Internet]. 2024Apr.1 [cited 2024May25];75(1):2009. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/2009