Rapid detection of argan oil adulteration by frying oils using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics tools
Keywords:Adulteration, Argan oil, Chemometrics, LIF
There is a contentious need for robust and rapid methodologies for maintaining the authenticity of foods. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify argan oil adulteration using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) were used to assess argan oil authenticity; PCA was used to classify samples according to their quality and the PLS model to determine the amount of adulterants in pure argan oil. The correlation coefficient of the obtained model was about 0.99, with Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP) and Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) of 2%. This study demonstrated the feasibility of LIF spectroscopy combined with chemometric tools to identify adulterants in pure argan oil from a percentage of adulteration, of 0.35 % without the need to destruct samples.
Addou S, Fethi F, Chikri M, Rrhioua A. 2016. Detection of argan oil adulteration with olive oil using fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometrics tools. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 7, 2689-2698.
Callao MP, Ruisánchez I. 2018. An overview of multivariate qualitative methods for food fraud detection. Food Control. 86, 283-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.11.034
Charlebois S, Schwab A, Henn R, Huck CW. 2016. Food fraud: An exploratory study for measuring consumer perception towards mislabeled food products and influence on self-authentication intentions. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 50, 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.02.003
Chikri M, Fethi F, Hamdani I, Bouyanzer A, Zarrouk A, Jama C, Costa J, Desjobert JM. 2018. Discrimination of chemical compounds of the oil of Menthasuaveolens (L.) of Eastern Morocco by the GPC-MS and chemometric methods. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 9, 909-917.
Dogruer I, Uyar H, Uncu O, Ozen B. 2021. Prediction of chemical parameters and authentication of various cold pressed oils with fluorescence and mid-infrared spectroscopic methods. Food Chem. 345, 128-815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128815 PMid:33333358
El Midaoui A, Haddad Y, Couture R. 2016. Beneficial effects of argan oil on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in rat. Nutrition. 32, 1132-1137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.02.021 PMid:27161594
ELMostafi H, Bahbiti Y, Elhessni A, Bousalham R, Doumar H, Ouichou A, Benmhammed H, Touil T, Mesfioui A. 2020. Neuroprotective potential of Argan oil in neuropsychiatric disorders in rats: A review. J. Funct. Foods. 75, 104-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2020.104233
Farres S, Srata L, Fethi F, Kadaoui A. 2019. Argan oil authentication using visible/near infrared spectroscopy combined to chemometrics tools. Vib. Spectrosc. 102, 79-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2019.04.003
Garrido-Delgado R, Muñoz-Pérez ME, Arce L. 2018. Detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by using UV-IMS and chemometric analysis. Food Control. 85, 292-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.10.012
Gonzalez-Fernandez MJ, Manzano-Agugliaro F, Zapata-Sierra A, Belarbi EH, Guil-Guerrero JL. 2020. Green argan oil extraction from roasted and unroasted seeds by using various polarity solvents allowed by the EU legislation. J. Clean. Prod. 276, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123081
Guidetti R, Beghi R, Giovenzana V. 2012. Chemometrics in food technology. Chemometrics in practical applications. 2012, 217-252. https://doi.org/10.5772/34148
Karoui R, Blecker C. 2011. Fluorescence Spectroscopy Measurement for Quality Assessment of Food Systems-a Review. Food Bioproc Tech. 4, 364-386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0370-0
Kharbach M, Yuc H, Kamald R, Barra I, Marmouzi I, Cherrah Y, Alaoui K, Bouklouze A, Heyden YV. 2021. New insights into the Argan oil categories characterization: Chemical descriptors, FTIR fingerprints, and chemometric approaches. Talanta. 225, 122073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.122073 PMid:33592791
Majchrzak T, Wojnowski W, Dymerski T, Gębicki J, Namieśnik J. 2018. Electronic noses in classification and quality control of edible oils: A review. Food Chem. 246, 192-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.11.013 PMid:29291839
Mazouffre S. 2009. Spectroscopie de fluorescence induite par diodes laser : Application au diagnostic des plasmas. 67, 1-23.
Moroccan Standard. 08.5.090. 2003. Huiles d'argane. Spécifications. Service de Normalisation Industrielle Marocaine (SNIMA) Ministère de l'Industrie, du Commerce et des Télécommunications.
Morsy N, Sun D. 2013. Robust linear and non-linear models of NIR spectroscopy for detection and quantification of adulterants in fresh and frozen-thawed minced beef. Meat Sci. 93, 292-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.09.005 PMid:23040181
Ozaki Y, McClure WF, Christy AA. 2013. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Food Science and Technology.
Ozulku G, Yildirim RM, Toker OS, Karasu S, Durak MZ. 2017. Rapid detection of adulteration of cold pressed sesame oil adultered with hazelnut, canola, and sunflower oils using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric. Food Control. 82, 212-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.06.034
Ruas MP, Ros J, Terral JF, Ivorra S, Andrianarinosy H, Ettahiri AS, Fili A, Van Staevel JP. 2015. History and archaeology of the emblematic argan tree in the medieval Anti-Atlas Mountains (Morocco). Quat. Int. 404, 114-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.09.030
Savitzky A, Golay MJE. 1964. Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures. Anal. Chem. 36, 1627-1639. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60214a047
Şekeroğlu ZA, Aydın B, Şekeroğlu V. 2017. Argan oil reduces oxidative stress, genetic damage and emperipolesis in rats treated with acrylamide. Biomed. Pharmacother. 94, 873-879. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.08.034 PMid:28810517
Srata L, Farres S, Fethi F. 2019. Engine oil authentication using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics methods. Vib. Spectrosc. 100, 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2018.10.002
Tipping ME, Bishop CM. 1999. Probabilistic principal component analysis. J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B. 61, 611-622. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9868.00196
Ulberth F. 2020. Tools to combat food fraud-A gap analysis. Food Chem. 330, 127044. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127044 PMid:32563930
Verboven S, Hubert M, Goos P. 2012. Robust preprocessing and model selection for spectral data. J. Chemom. 26, 282-289. https://doi.org/10.1002/cem.2446
Wang H, Wan X. 2020. Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy effect of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching on quantitative analysis of adulteration in extra virgin olive oil. Spectrochim. Acta Part A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 248, 119183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.119183 PMid:33246856
Wold S, Trygg J, Berglund A, Antti H. 2001. Some recent developments in PLS modeling. Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 58, 131-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7439(01)00156-3
Xing C, Yuan X, Wu X, Shao X, Yuan J, Yan W. 2019. Chemometric classification and quantification of sesame oil adulterated with other vegetable oils based on fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Lwt. 108, 437-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.03.085
Yang H, Irudayaraj J, Paradkar MM. 2005. Discriminant analysis of edible oils and fats by FTIR, FT-NIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Food Chem. 93, 25-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.08.039
Zheng KY, Zhang X, Tong PJ, Yao Y, Du YP. 2015. Pretreating near infrared spectra with fractional order Savitzky-Golay differentiation (FOSGD). Chinese Chem. Lett. 26, 293-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2014.10.023
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.