Evaluation of monthly changes in essential oil yield and components of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) leaf





Cherry laurel, Monthly variation, Volatile components, Volatile oil content


This research was carried out to examine the monthly changes in both the volatile oil content and volatile components of cherry laurel leaves by taking samples every month for 12 months in Turkey. Harvest periods significantly affected volatile oil content (P < 0.01). Depending on harvest periods, volatile oil ratios ranged from 0.19 to 0.35%. The months of August, July, and September yielded the highest volatile oil ratios. Benzaldehyde, phenol, benzoic acid, benzeneacetonitrile, pentadecanone, 1,54-dibromotetrapentacontane and, tetrapentacontane were determined as components in the volatile oil. The ratio of benzaldehyde, the main active ingredient, varied between 83.89 and 94.41%, depending on the harvest time. The cherry laurel leaf should be harvested in July, August, and September for high essential oil ratios and in May, June, and July for high benzaldehyde ratios. Due to the high concentration of benzaldehyde in its volatile oil, cherry laurel evergreen leaf can be considered a valuable source of raw materials for the fragrance and pharmaceutical sectors.


Download data is not yet available.


Abubacker MN, Devi PK. 2014. In vitro antifungal potentials of bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester isolated from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (Acanthaceae) inforescence. Asian Pac. J. Trop Med. 7, 190-S193. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60230-3 PMid:25312119

Adams RP. 2007. Identification of volatile oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. fourth ed. Allured Publishing, Carol Stream, IL.

Akcura M, Turan V, Kokten K, Kaplan M. 2019. Fatty acid and some micro element compositions of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) genotype seeds growing under Mediterranean climate. Indust. Crops Prod. 128, 140-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.10.062

Akçura M. 2011. The relationships of some traits in Turkish winter bread wheat landraces. Turk J. Agric. For. 35, 115-125. https://doi.org/10.3906/tar-0908-301

Akçura S. 2023. Biplot analysis of monthly variations in essential oil concentration and chemical composition of Pittosporum tobira leaves in Mediterranean conditions. Biochem. System. Ecol. 110, 104712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2023.104712

Anonymous 2022. General Directorate of State Meteorological Affairs of Türkiye, monthly and annual meteorological measurement values.

Berger RG. 2007. Flavours and fragrances: chemistry, bioprocessing and sustainability. Springer Science & Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-49339-6

Bernhard HJJ, Haya JA, Alaa MZA, Basmah MHA, Paul G. 2014. Hydroxybenzoic acid isomers and the cardiovascular system. Nutrit. J. 13, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-13-63 PMid:24943896 PMCid:PMC4074389

Çalışır S, Aydın C. 2004. Some physico-mechanic proper-ties of cherry laurel (Prunus lauracerasus L.) fruits. J. Food Eng. 65, 145-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.01.009

da Cruz E, Peixoto, LDS, da Costa JS, Mourão RHV, do Nascimento WMO, Maia JG, Figueiredo PLB. 2022. Seasonal variability of a caryophyllane chemotype volatile oil of Eugenia patrisii Vahl occurring in the Brazilian Amazon. Molecules 27, 2417. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27082417 PMid:35458612 PMCid:PMC9025321

Duke JA. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Erdemoglu N, Küpeli E, Yesilada E. 2003. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity assessment of plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine. J. Ethnopharm. 89, 123-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00282-4 PMid:14522443

Gabriel KR, 1971. The biplot graphic display of matrices with application to principal component analysis. Biometrika 58, 453-467. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/58.3.453

Haffenden LJW, Yaylayan VA, Fortin J. 2001. Investigation of vibrational theory of olfaction with variously labelled benzaldehydes. Food Chem. 73, 67-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00287-9

Hadj Larbi N, Moghrani H, Nasrallah N, Benelmouffok A, Kellou D. 2023. Influence of harvest season on the chemical composition and antifungal activity of Citrus limon essential oil. Rendiconti Lincei. Sci. Fisiche Natur. 34, 295-303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12210-023-01132-w

Islam A. 2002. 'Kiraz'cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus). J. Crop Hort. Sci. 30, 301-302. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2002.9514227

Kaplan M, Kokten K, Akcura M. 2017. Assessment of Genotype× Trait× Environment interactions of silage maize genotypes through GGE Biplot. Chilean J. Agric. Res. 77, 212-217. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392017000300212

Karataş E, Uçar A. 2018. The effect of Karayemiş on health. Journal of Health Sciences, 27, 70-75.

Khanal LN, Sharma, KR, Pokharel, YR, Kalauni SK. 2022. Characterization of volatile oil, estimation of phenolic and flavonod content and biological activities of Ephedra pachyclada BOISS. J. Instit. Sci. Technol. 27, 27-35. https://doi.org/10.3126/jist.v27i1.40590

Lazic M, Stanisavljevic I, Velickovic D, Stojicevic S, Veljkovic V. 2009. Hydrodistillation of volatile oil from cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) Leaves: Kinetics and Chemical Composition. Plant. Med. 75, PI34. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1234798

Mariyammal V, Sathiageetha V, Amalraj S, Gurav SS, Amiri-Ardekani E, Jeeva S, Ayyanar M. 2023. Chemical profiling of Aristolochia tagala Cham. leaf extracts by GC-MS analysis and evaluation of its antibacterial activity. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 100, 100807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jics.2022.100807

Mchedlidze VB, Kharebava LG. 1988. Volatile compounds of cherry laurel. Subtropicheskie-Kultury, 5, 106-110.

Melito S, Petretto GL, Chahine S, Pintore G, Chessa M. 2019. Seasonal variation of volatile oil in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves in Sardinia. Natural Product Comm. 14, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X19864005

Orhan IE, Akkol EK. 2011. Estimation of neuroprotective effects of Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (cherry laurel) by in vitro methods. Food Res. Internat. 44, 818-822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.01.037

SAS Institute 2000. SAS User's Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Inst

Schoss K, Kočevar Glavač N, Kreft S. 2023. Volatile compounds in Norway spruce (Picea abies) significantly vary with season. Plants 12, 188. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010188 PMid:36616317 PMCid:PMC9824094

Serralutzu F, Stangoni A, Amadou B, Tijan D, Re GA, Marceddu S, Dore A, Bullitta S. 2020. Volatile oil composition and yield of a Rosmarinus officinalis L. Natural population with an extended flowering season in a coastal Mediterranean environment and perspectives for exploitations. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 67, 1777-1793. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-020-00939-y

Shunmugapriya K, Vennila P, Thirukkumar S, Ilamaran M. 2017. Identification of bioactive components in Moringa oleifera fruit by GC-MS. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 6, 748-751.

Stanisavljević IT, Lazić ML, Veljković VB, Stojičević SS, Veličković DT, Ristić M.S. 2010. Kinetics of hydrodistillation and chemical composition of volatile oil from cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L. var. serbica Pančić) leaves. J. Essential Oil Res. 22, 564-567. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2010.9700401

Tithi NA. 2022. Chemical and biological investigations of the Yaegl medicinal plant Alphitonia excelsa (Doctoral dissertation, Macquarie University).

Verma RC, Ram S, Padalia, Ved R, Singh P, Goswami A, Chauhan C, Balakishan B. 2017. Natural benzaldehyde from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, International J. Food Propert. 20, 1259-1263. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1338728

Yan W. 2014. Crop variety trials: Data management and analysis. John Wiley and Sons. 349 p. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118688571

Zhu J, Meng X, Wu Y, Bao Y, Li Y. 2005. Analysis of the volatile oils from fruits, stems, leaves, barks and trunk cores of Prunus padus Linn. Chinese J. Anal. Chem. 33, 1615-1618.



How to Cite

Akçura S. Evaluation of monthly changes in essential oil yield and components of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) leaf. Grasas aceites [Internet]. 2024Mar.14 [cited 2024May25];75(1):e546. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/2147