Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety ‘Galega Vulgar’


  • Luís Vaz-Freire Departamento de Fitotecnia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora
  • José Manuel J. Gouveia Departamento de Agro-Indústrias e Agronomia Tropical, Instituto de Agronomia Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
  • Ana Maria Costa Freitas Departamento de Fitotecnia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora



Extraction technique, ‘Galega Vulgar’, Olive oil, Technology


A metal hammer-decanter (HD) olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP) line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety) were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.


Download data is not yet available.


Alasalvar C, Shahidi F, Ohshima T, Wanasundara U, Yurttas HC, Liyanapathirana CM, Rodrigues FB. 2003.Turkish Tombul Hazelnut. 2. Lipid characteristics and oxidative stability. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 3797–3805. doi:10.1021/jf021239x PMid:12797746

Alves MR, Cunha SC, Amaral JS, Pereira JA, Oliveira MB. 2005. Classification of PDO olive oils on the basis of their sterol composition by multivariate analysis. Anal. Chimica Acta 549, 166–178 doi:10.1016/j.aca.2005.06.033

Aparicio R, Luna G. 2002. Characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils. Eur. J. of Lipid Sc. And Technology, 104, 614–627. doi:10.1002/1438-9312(200210)104:9/10<614::AID-EJLT614>3.0.CO;2-L

Aranda F, Gómez-Alonso S, Rivera del Alamo RM, Salvador MD, Fregapane G. 2004. Triglyceride, total and 2-position fatty acid composition of Cornicabra virgin olive oil: Comparison with other Spanish cultivars. Food Chem. 86, 485–492. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.09.021

Barranco A, Fernández-Escobar R, Rallo L. 2001. El cultivo del olivo. Junta de Andalucia & Mundi Prensa, Andalucia, España.

Bartolini G, Prevost G, Messeri C, Carignani G, Menini U.G. 1998. Olive Germoplasm. Cultivars and World-Wide Collections. FAO, Rome.

Boskou D. 1996. Olive oil. Chemistry and Technology. AOCS Press, Illinois, USA.

EC Regulation nº2568/1991 annex II - Determination of the free fatty acids.

EC Regulation nº2568/1991 annex III - Determination of the peroxide value. EC regulation nº2568/1991 annex IV – Determination of waxes. EC regulation nº2568/1991 annex V - Determination of sterols. EC regulation nº2568/1991 annex VIII – Determination of triglycerides.

EC Regulation nº2568/1991 annex IX - Spectrophotometric investigation in the ultraviolet. EC regulation nº2568/1991 annex XB – Determination of fatty acids.

EC Regulation nº1989/2003 of 6 of November - amending Regulation (EEC) No 2568/1991 on the characteristics of olive oil and olive-pomace oil and on the relevant methods of analysis

Gemas VJV, Rijo-Johansen MJ, Fevereiro P. 2002. Intra-Variability of the Portuguese Olive Cultivar Galega Vulgar expressed by RAPD, ISSR and SPAR. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 586, 175-178.

Gouveia JMB. 1995. Azeites Virgens do Alto Alentejo. Comportamento Químico, Tecnológico e Sensorial. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisboa.

Gouveia J, Saldanha J, Martins A, Modesto M, Sobral V. 2002. O Azeite em Portugal, Edições Inapa, Portugal Hermoso M, Uceda M, Garc›a A, Morales B, Frias ML, Fernandez A. 1991. Elaboracion de aceite de calidad. Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca, Serie Apuntes, 5/92, Sevilla.

IT065 – 2004. Polyphenols analyses internal proceeding. Lab. de Estudos Técnicos, ISA, UTL. Lisboa, Portugal

Portuguese Norm NP 4158 de 1991 – Edible fat and oils. Determination of oxidative stability.

Ranalli A, de Mattia G, Ferrante ML, Giansante L. 1997. Incidence of olive cultivation area on the analytical characteristics of the oil. Note 1. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse 74, 501–508.

Rovellini P, Azzolini M, Cortesi N. 1997. Tocoferoli e tocotrienoli in oli e grassi vegetali mediante HPLC. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse 74, 1-5.

Salvador MD, Aranda F, Gómez-Alonso S, Fregapane G. 2001. Cornicabra virgin olive oil: a study of five crop seasons. Composition, quality and oxidative stability. Food Chem. 74, 267–274 doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00148-0

Torres MM, Maestri DM. 2006. The effects of genotype and extraction methods on chemical composition of virgin olive oils from Traslasierra Valley (Córdoba, Argentina). - Food Chem. 96 (4), 507-511. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.03.003

Vinha AF, Ferreres F, Silva BM, Valentão P, Gonçalves A, Pereira JA, Oliveira MB, Seabra RM, Andrade PB. 2005. Phenolic profiles of Portuguese olive fruits (Olea europaea L.): Influences of cultivar and geographical origin. Food Chem. 89, 561–568. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.03.012

Vlyssides AG, Loizides M, Karlis PK. 2004. Integrated strategic approach for reusing olive oil extraction, byproducts. J. of Cleaner Production 12, 603–611. doi:10.1016/S0959-6526(03)00078-7




How to Cite

Vaz-Freire L, J. Gouveia JM, Costa Freitas AM. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety ‘Galega Vulgar’. Grasas aceites [Internet]. 2008Sep.30 [cited 2024May29];59(3):260-6. Available from: