Oleochemicals I: Studies on the preparation and the structure of lithium soaps.
Keywords:Elementary analysis, Infrared spectrophotometry, Lithium hydroxide, Metallic soap, Thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction
Lithium stéarate, palmitate, myristate, laurate, caprate and caprylate were prepared by means of fusion method. Elementary analysis and the infrared absorptions spectra of the prepared lithium soaps as well as their X-ray diffractions and the thermogravimetric analyses were carried out. The anhydrous lithium salts of fatty acids with 12 carbon atoms or less showed thermal stability up to ca. 300 ± 78 °C depending on the chain length. On other hand the salts with 14 carbon atoms or more were decomposed at 126 ± 4 °C leading to formation of lithium carbonate. The homologous lithium soaps had very similar crystal structure among them and their metal -to- oxygen bonds were similar for the acyl chains between 8 and 18 carbons. However the angle of inclination of the molecular axes to the basal plane increased with the decreasing of the number of carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain, as determined by X-ray diffraction. In addition, the ionic character of the metal -to- oxygen bond was enhanced with the decrease of the number of carbon atoms as shown by infrared spectroscopy.
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