Grasas y Aceites, Vol 62, No 2 (2011)

Kinetics and thermodynamics of cottonseed oil extraction


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.090210

Devesh K. Saxena
Research Scholar,University School of Chemical Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, India

S. K. Sharma
Assistant Professor, University School of Chemical Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, India

S. S. Sambi
Professor & Dean, University School of Chemical Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, India

Abstract


Petroleum derived n-hexane is commercially used in solvent extraction plants due to its higher extraction efficiency in spite of the fact that it is graded as highly toxic and hazardous. The present study is based on the use of both a much safer and non toxic solvent ethanol and n-hexane for the extraction of oil from cottonseed. The extraction data were obtained by varying temperature, solvent-solid ratio and particle size, to compare the extraction efficiency of both ethanol and n-hexane. The data show that nearly the same amount of extraction is possible at a higher solvent-solid ratio for both the solvents. This study has established that the kinetics of oil extraction follows a second order reaction mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis of the data shows that both ΔHº and ΔSº are positive, and ΔGº is negative indicating that the extraction process is endothermic, irreversible, and spontaneous.

Keywords


Cottonseed; Ethanol; n-Hexane; Kinetics; Oil extraction; Thermodynamics

Full Text:


PDF

References


Abraham G, Hron RJ, Koltun SP. 1988. Modeling the solvent extraction of oilseeds. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 65, 129-135. doi:10.1007/BF02542564

Ayers AL, Scott CR. 1951. Cottonseed oil extraction with normal Hexane and Methylpentanes. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 28, 348-351. doi:10.1007/BF02589710

Baker EC, Sullivan DA. 1983. Development of a pilotplant process for the extraction of soy flakes with aqueous isopropyl alcohol. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60, 1271-1277. doi:10.1007/BF02702099

Becker W. 1978. Solvent extraction of soybean. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 55, 754–761. doi:10.1007/BF02682643

Bhattacharjee P, Singhal RS, Tiwari SR. 2007. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cottonseed oil. J. Food Eng. 79, 892-898. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.03.009

Bhowmick DN, Rebello D. 2003. Improved Utilization of cottonseed meal by Isopropanol Extraction, http://www.vurabalu.com/masterssponsor.htm.

Brien RDO, Wakelyn PJ. 2005. Cottonseed Oil: An oil for trans-free options. J. Food Technol. 16, 677-679.

Coats HB, Wingard MR. 1950. Solvent extraction-III: The effect of particle size on extraction rate. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 27, 93–96. doi:10.1007/BF02634397

Conkerton EJ, Wan PJ, Richard OA. 1995. Hexane and heptane as extraction solvents for cottonseed: a laboratory-scale study. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72, 963-965. doi:10.1007/BF02542075

Ertugrul D, Filiz K. 2004. Using of Cottonseed Oil as an environmentally accepted Lubricant additive. Energy Sources, part A, Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects 26, 611-625.

Eskin NAM, Akomas O, Latta M. 1995. A study of gossypol reduction by choline and ethanolamine using a model system. Food Chemistry 52, 43-46. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(94)P4179-J

Frampton VL, Pepperman AB, Joseph S, King WH. 1967. Countercurrent extraction of Raw Cottonseed Flakes with the Acetone-Hexane-Water Azeotrope. J. Agr. Food Chem. 15, 790-797. doi:10.1021/jf60153a011

Ferreira-Dias S, Valente DG, Abreu JMF . 2003. Comparision between ethanol and hexane for oil extraction from Quercus suber L fruits. Grasas y Aceites 54, 378-383. doi:10.3989/gya.2003.v54.i4.225

Gandhi AP, Joshi KC, Jha K, Parihar VS, Srivastav DC, Raghunadh P, Kawalkar J, Jain SK, Tripathi RN. 2003. Studies on alternative solvents for the extraction of oil-I soybean. Int. J. of Food Sci. Technol. 38, 369–375. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.2003.00683.x

Hagenmaier R, Cater CM, Mattil KF. 1973. Aqueous processing of fresh coconuts for recovery of oil and coconut skim milk. J. Food Sci. 38, 516-518. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1973.tb01470.x

Hanmoungjai P, Pyle L, Niranjan K. 2000. Extraction of rice bran oil using aqueous media. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 75, 348-352. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(200005)75:5<348::AID-JCTB233>3.0.CO;2-P

Hoffman G. 1989. The Chemistry and Technology of Edible Oils and Fats and their High Fat Products, Academic Press, New York. pp 63-64.

Hron RJ, Koltun SP. 1984. An aqueous ethanol extraction process for cottonseed. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61, 1457-1460. doi:10.1007/BF02636363

Hron RJ Sr., Kuk MS, Abraham G, Wan PJ. 1994. Ethanol extraction of oil, gossypol and aflatoxin from cottonseed. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71, 417-421. IS: 7847-1968, Specification for Edible Cottonseed Flour (Expeller Pressed) Bureau of Indian Standard.

Johnson LA, Lusas EW. 1983. Comparison of alternative solvents for oil extraction. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60, 229–241. doi:10.1007/BF02543490

Junfeng Q, Zhi Y, Haixian S. 2010. Cogeneration bio diesel and non toxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two phase solvent extraction. Energy Conversion and Management, article in press

Kim SH. 1989. Aqueous extraction of oil from palm kernel. J. Food Sci. 54, 491-492. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1989.tb03117.x

Kuk MS, Tetlow R, Dowd MK. 2005. Cotton seed extraction with mixture of acetone and hexane. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82, 609-612. doi:10.1007/s11746-005-1117-y

Kuk M, Hron R J. 1998. Cottonseed extraction with new solvent system: Isohexane and alcohol. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 927-930.

List GR, Friedrich JP, Pominski J. 1984. Characterization and Processing of Cottonseed Oil Obtained by Extraction with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61 1857-1849.

Lusas EW, Watkins LR, Koseoglu SS. 1991. Isopropyl alcohol to be tested as solvent. Inform. 2, 970-976.

Liauw MY, Natan FA, Widianti P, Iksari D, Indraswati N, and Soetaredjo FE. 2008. Extraction of neem oil using n-hexane and ethanol: studies on oil quality, kinetic & thermodynamics. ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 3,49-54.

Meziane S, Kadi H, Lamrous O. 2006. Kinetic study of oil extraction from olive foot cake. Grasasy Aceites 57, 175-179.

Meziane S, Kadi H. 2008. Kinetics and thermodynamics of oil extraction from olive cake. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 391-396. doi:10.1007/s11746-008-1205-2

NIOSH (2007). NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/pdfs/2005-149.pdf.

PFA Act. 1954. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act. No.37 of 1954: Part III, Rule No.5, APPENDIX B Definition and Standards of Quality, A.17.02 as amended till date www.lawbooksshop.com.

Rakotondramasy RL, Havet JL, Porte C, Fauduet H. 2007. Solid-liquid extraction of protopine from fumaria officinalis L-Analysis determination, kinetic reaction and model building. Sep.Purification Technol. 54, 253-261. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2006.09.015

Sepidar S, Zurina ZA, Yunus R, Muhammad A. 2009. Extraction of Oil from Jatropha Seeds-Optimization and Kinetics. Am. J.Appl. Sci. 6, 1390-1395. doi:10.3844/ajassp.2009.1390.1395

Seth S, Agrawal YC, Ghosh PK, Jayas DS, Singh BPN. 2007. Oil extraction rates of soya bean using isopropyl alcohol as solvent. Bioststems Eng. 97, 209-217. doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2007.03.008

Shekhar GC. 2006. India second largest global cotton producer, The Hindu, businessline.com, Wednesday, 2006/10/04.

Sineiro J, Domínguez H, Núñez MJ, Lema JM 1998. Ethanolic extraction of sunflower oil in a pulsing extractor. J. Am.Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 753-754. doi:10.1007/s11746-998-0220-7

Wan PJ, Pakarinen DR, Hron RJ, Richard OL, Conkerton EJ. 1995(a). Alternative hydrocarbon solvents for cottonseed extraction. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72, 653-659. doi:10.1007/BF02635650

Wan PJ, Hron RJ, Dowd MK, Kuk MS, Conkerton EJ. 1995(b). Alternative hydrocarbon solvents for cottonseed extraction: plant trials. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72, 661-664. doi:10.1007/BF02635651

Wenjuan Q, Zhongli P, Haile M. 2010. Extraction modeling and activities of antioxidants from pomegranate marc. J. Food Eng. 99, 16–23. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.01.020

Wiese KL, Snyder HE. 1987. Analysis of the oil extraction process in soybeans: A new continuous procedure. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 64, 402-406. doi:10.1007/BF02549304




Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es