Grasas y Aceites, Vol 63, No 1 (2012)

Physicochemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part II Microstructure, polymorphic behavior and crystallization characteristics


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.069111

A. P. B. Ribeiro
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Brazil

R. Corrêa Basso
Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Brazil

L. A.G. Gonçalves
Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Brazil

L. A. Gioielli
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Brazil

A. Oliveira dos Santos
Social Sciences, Health and Technology Center, University of Maranhão, Brazil

L. Pavie Cardoso
Institute of Physics Gleb Wataghin, University of Campinas, Brazil

T. Guenter Kieckbusch
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Brazil

Abstract


The microstructural behavior of industrial standardized cocoa butter samples and cocoa butter samples from three different Brazilian states is compared. The cocoa butters were characterized by their microstructural patterns, crystallization kinetics and polymorphic habits. The evaluation of these parameters aided in establishing relationships between the chemical compositions and crystallization behavior of the samples, as well as differentiating them in terms of technological and industrial potential for use in tropical regions.

Keywords


Cocoa butter; Crystallization kinetics; Microstructure; Polymorphism

Full Text:


PDF

References


AOCS. American Oil Chemists’ Society. 2004. Official methods and recommended practices of the Am. Oil Chem. Soc.. AOCS Press, Urbana, USA.

Aronhime JS. 1988. Application of thermal analysis (DSC) in the study of polymorphic transformations. Thermochim. Acta 134, 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(88)85210-9

Awad TS Marangoni AG. 2006. Ingredient interactions affecting texture and microstructure of confectionery chocolate, en McPherson A, Gaonkar AG (Eds.) Ingredient Interactions: Effects on Food Quality. CRC Press, Boca Raton, págs. 424-471.

Campos R. 2005. Experimental Methodology, en Marangoni AG (Ed.) Fat Crystal Networks. Marcel Dekker, New York, págs. 267-349.

Chaiseri S, Dimick PS. 1995. Dynamic crystallization of cocoa butter. Characterization of simple lipids in rapid- and slow-nucleating cocoa butters and their seed crystals. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72, 1491-1496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02577842

Chapman GM, Akehurst ee, Wright wb. 1971. Studies using programmed temperature X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 48, 824-830. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02609292

Duck W. 1964. The measurement of unstable fat in finished chocolate. Manuf. Confectioner 35, 67-72.

Foubert I, Vanrolleghem PA, Dewettinck K. 2005. Insight in model parameters by studying temperature influence on isothermal cocoa butter crystallization. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 107, 660-672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200501177

Foubert I, Dewettinck D, Walle DV, Dijkstra AJ, Quinn PJ. 2007. Physical properties: structural and physical characteristics, en Gunstone FD, Dijkstra AJ (Eds.) The Lipid Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, págs. 471-508.

Garti N, Schlichter J, Sarig S. 1986. Effect of food emulsifiers on polymorphic transitions of cocoa butter. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 63, 231-236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02546144

Gioielli LA, Simões IS, Rodrigues JN. 2003. Crystal morphology and interactions of binary and ternary mixtures of hydrogenated fats. J. Food Eng. 57, 347-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(02)00355-2

Herrera ML, Falabella C, Melgarejo M, Anon MC. 1998. Isothermal crystallization of hydrogenated sunflower oil: I – nucleation. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 1273-1280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0172-y

Herrera ML, Falabella C, Melgarejo M, Anon MC. 1999. Isothermal crystallization of hydrogenated sunflower oil: II – growth and solid fat content. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0039-x

Himavan C, Starov VM, Stapley AGF. 2006. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of fat crystallization. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 122, 3-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2006.06.016 PMid:16904622

Huyghebaert A, Hendrickx H. 1971. Polymorphism of cocoa butter, shown by differential scanning calorimetry. Lebensmittel-Wissecschaft and Technologie 4, 59-63.

Kellens M, Meeussen W, Reynaers H. 1992. Study of the polymorphism and the crystallization kinetics of tripalmitin: A microscopic approach. J. American Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 906-911. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02636342

Kloek W, Walstra P, van Vliet T. 2000. Crystallization kinetics of fully hydrogenated palm oil in sunflower oil mixtures. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77, 389-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-000-0063-z

Lannes SCS, Medeiros ML, Gioielli LA. 2003. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats. Grasas Aceites 54, 253-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.2003.v54.i3.239

Larsson K. 1994. Lipids: Molecular Organization, Physical Functions and Technical Applications. The Oily Press, Dundee, UK.

Lipp M, Anklam E. 1998. Review of cocoa butter and alternative fats for use in chocolate - part A. Compositional data. Food Chem. 62, 73-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00160-X

Loisel C, Keller G, Lecq G, Bourgaux C, Ollivon M. 1998. Phase transitions and polymorphism of cocoa butter. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 425-439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0245-y

Lovergren NV, Gray MS, Feuge RO. 1976. Polymorphic changes in mixtures of confectionery fats. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 53, 83-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02637399

Luccas V, Kieckbusch TG. 2006. Estudo comparativo do polimorfismo da gordura de cupuaçu e da manteiga de cacau por calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC). Braz. J. Food Technol. 9, 63-68.

Martini S, Awad T, Marangoni AG. 2006. Structure and properties of fat crystals networks, en Gunstone FD (Ed.) Modifying Lipids for Use in Food. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, págs. 142-169.

Marangoni AG. 2005. Fat Crystal Networks. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA.

McGauley SE, Marangoni AG. 2002. Static crystallization behavior of cocoa butter and its relationship to network microstructure, en Marangoni AG, Narine SS (Eds.) Physical Properties of Lipids. CRC Press, Boca Raton, págs. 85-123.

Merkens GV, Vaeck SV. 1980. Etude du polymorphisme du beurre de cacao par calorimétrie DSC. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 13, 314-317.

Metin S, Hartel RW. 1998. Thermal analysis of isothermal crystallization kinetics in blends of cocoa butter with milk fat or milk fat fractions. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 1617-1624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0102-z

Narine SS, Marangoni AG. 2005. Microstructure, en Marangoni AG (Ed.) Fat Crystal Networks. Marcel Dekker, New York, págs. 179-255.

Ribeiro APB, Basso RC, Grimaldi R, Gioielli LA, Gonçalves LAG. 2009. Instrumental methods for the evaluation of interesterified fats. Food Anal. Method 2, 282-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12161-009-9073-4

Ribeiro APB, Claro da Silva R, Gioielli LA, de Almeida Gonçalves MI, Grimaldi R, Gonçalves LAG, Guenter Kieckbusch T. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and its industrial blends. Part I - Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency. Grasas Aceites 63, 79-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.069011

Rodrigues-Ract JN, Cotting LN, Poltronieri TP, Silva RC, Gioielli LA. 2010. Comportamento de cristalização de lipídios estruturados obtidos a partir de gordura do leite e óleo de girassol. Ciência Tecnol. Aliment. 30, 258-267.

Rousseau D. 2007. The microstructure of chocolate, en McClements DJ (Ed.) Understanding and controlling the microstructure of complex foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, págs. 649-690.

Sato K. 2001. Crystallization behavior of fats and lipids: a review. Chem. Eng. Sci. 56, 2255-2265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(00)00458-9

Schenck H, Peschar R. 2004. Understanding the structure of chocolate. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 71, 829-835. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2004.04.105

Shi Y, Liang B, Hartel RW. 2005. Crystal morphology, microstructure, and textural properties of model lipid system. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82, 399-408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-005-1084-3

Shukla VKS. 2006. Cocoa Butter, Cocoa Butter Equivalents, and Cocoa Butter Substitutes, en Akoh CC (Ed.) Handbook of Functional Lipids. CRC Press, Boca Raton, págs. 279-307.

Silva RC, Cotting LN, Poltronieri TP, Balcão VM, Almeida DB, Gonçalves LAG, Grimaldi R, Gioielli LA. 2009. The effects of enzymatic interesterication on the physicalchemical properties of blends of lard and soybean oil. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 42, 1275-1282.

Timms RE. 2003. Confectionery Fats Handbook. The Oily Press, Bridgwater, UK.

Vaeck V S 1960. Cocoa butter and fat bloom. Manuf. Confectioner 15, 35-74.

Van Malssen K, Langevelde AV, Peschar R, Schenk H. 1999. Phase behavior and extended phase scheme of static cocoa butter investigated with real-time X-ray powder diffraction. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 669-676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0158-4

Van Malssen K, Peschar R, Schenk H. 1996. Real-time X-ray powder diffraction investigations on cocoa butter II. The relationship between melting behaviour and composition of b-cocoa butter. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73, 1217-1223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02525449

Wille RL, Lutton ES. 1966. Polymorphism of cocoa butter. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 43, 491-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02641273 PMid:5945032

Zeitoun MAM, Neff WE, List GR, Mounts TL. 1993. Physical properties of interesterified fat blends. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 70, 467-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02542577




Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es