Hypolipidemic effect of vegetable and cereal dietary mixtures from Egyptian sources


  • Magdy M. Rashed Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University
  • Magdy Shallan Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University
  • Doha A. Mohamed Food Sciences and Nutrition Department, National Research Centre
  • Karem Fouda Food Sciences and Nutrition Department, National Research Centre
  • Laila M. Hanna Food Sciences and Nutrition Department, National Research Centre




Beetroot, Cabbage, Cereals, Dietary mixtures, Hyperlipidemia, Vegetables


Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD; however, only limited data are available on the benefits of vegetable consumption on CVD risk factors. The aim of this study was to prepare two powder mixtures containing vegetables and cereals and to evaluate their effect in hyperlipidemic rats. The first mixture was prepared from whole wheat, cabbage, parsley and pepper, while the second mixture was prepared from whole wheat, red beet root, parsley and pepper. Whole wheat was used as a source of dietary fiber, while cabbage and beetroot were used as sources of glucosinolates (GLS) and betalains respectively as well as dietary fiber. The chemical compositions of these mixtures were determined. The safety of these mixtures was also evaluated by examining liver and kidney functions. The chemical compositions of the powder mixtures revealed that mixtures (1) and (2) contain 19.1% and 13.3% protein, 2.1% and 2.5 % fat, 69.6% and 77.5% carbohydrates, 1.8% and 1.2% crude fibers, 7.4% and 5.5% ash and 18.3% and 16.8% dietary fibers respectively. Vitamin E was 7.4 and 4.5 mg/100g in mixtures (1) and (2) respectively. β-carotene was 830 and 786μg/100g in mixtures (1) and (2) respectively. Total phenolic compounds were 1910 and 1710 mg as gallic acid equivalents/100g in mixtures (1) and (2) respectively. The results of the animal experiment showed a non-significant reduction in final body weight and body weight gain in rats fed the control diet containing mixture (1) or (2) when compared with different groups. Rats fed the control diet containing mixture (1) or (2) showed a significant reduction in plasma total lipids, T-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG and the ratio of T-Ch /HDLCh in different degrees, while HDL-Ch increased significantly. The studied mixtures showed a hypolipidemic effect, which may be due to the presence of dietary fibers, plant protein, and phenolic compunds.


Download data is not yet available.


Amaral JS, Casal S, Torres D, Seabra RM, Oliveira BP. 2005. Simultaneous determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in hazelnuts by a normal phase liquid chromatographic method. Analytical Sciences 21, 1545-1548. doi:10.2116/analsci.21.1545 PMid:16379404

Anderson JW. 2003. Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62, 135-142. doi:10.1079/PNS2002222 PMid:12740068

AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis (15th ed.). (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD).

AOAC. 1997. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Agriculture Chemists 16th ed. Volume II, Section 45.4.07, Methods 985.29.

Atwal AS, Kubow C, Wolynetz MS. 1997. Effect of protein source and amino acid supplementation on plasma cholesterol in guinea pig. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 67, 192-198. PMid:9202980

Awan JA. 1993. Elements of food and nutrition. Uni-Tech Communication, Faisalabad, Pakistan, pp. 42–44.

Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, Wolynetz MS, Lowe MK, Bradley- White P, Collins MW. 1994. Oat betaglucan reduces blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eur. J. of Clin. Nutr. 48, 465-474. PMid:7956987

Briggs GM, Williams M.A. 1963. A new mineral mixture for experimental rat diets and evaluation of other mineral mixtures. Fed. Proc. 22, 261 - 266.

Burstein M, Scholnick HR, Morfin R. 1980. Rapid method for the isolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 40, 583-595.

Cao G, Sofic E, Prior RL. 1996. Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44, 3426–3431. doi:10.1021/jf9602535

Casiraghi MC, Garsetti M, Testolin G, Brighenti F. 2006. Post-prandial responses to cereal products enriched with barley beta-glucan. J. of the Am. Col. of Nutr. 25, 313-320.

Chevallier A. 1996. The encyclopedia of medicinal plants. New York: DK Publishing Inc. p. 176.

Deng R. 2009. Food and food supplements with hypocholesterolemic effects. Recent patents on Food, Nutrition and Agriculture 1, 15-24.

Duncan DB. (1955). Multiple Range and Multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42. doi:10.2307/3001478

Eastwood MA. 1999. Interaction of dietary antioxidants in vivo: how fruit and vegetables prevent disease? QJM dan. Inter. J. of Med. 92, 527-530.

Elson CE, Peffley DM, Hentosh P, Mo H. 1999. Isoprenoid-mediated inhibition of mevalonate synthesis: potential application to cancer. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 22, 294–310. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1373.1999.d01-87.x PMid:10460692

Fahey JW, Zalcmann AT, Talalay P. 2001. The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry 56, 5–51. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00316-2

Fahey JW, Zalcmann AT, Talalay P. 2002. Corrigendum to ‘‘The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants’’. Phytochemistry 59, 237. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00419-8

Finley JW. 2005. Proposed criteria for assessing the efficacy of cancer reduction by plant foods enriched in carotenoids, glucosinolates, polyphenols and selenocompounds. Ann. Bot. 95, 1075–1096. doi:10.1093/aob/mci123 PMid:15784686

Finley JW, Ip C, Lisk DJ, Davis CD, Hintze KJ, Whanger PD. 2001. Cancer-protective properties of highselenium broccoli. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 2679–2683. doi:10.1021/jf0014821 PMid:11368655

Fawcett JK, Scott JE. 1960. A rapid and precise method for the determination of urea. J. Clin. Pathol. 13: 156-159. doi:10.1136/jcp.13.2.156 PMid:13821779    PMCid:480024

Fernandez ML. 2001. Soluble fiber and nondigestible carbohydrate effects on plasma lipids and cardiovascular risk. Curr. Opin Lipidol. 12, 35–40. doi:10.1097/00041433-200102000-00007 PMid:11176201

Fuhrman B, Elis A, Aviram M. 1997. Hypocholesterolemic effect of lycopene and £]-carotene is related to suppression of cholesterol synthesis and augmentation of LDL receptor activity in macrophages. Biochem. Biophys Res. Commun. 233, 658–662. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6520 PMid:9168909

Galisteo M, Duarte J, Zarzuelo A. 2008. Effects of dietary fibers on disturbances clustered in the metabolic syndrome. J. Nutritional Biochem. 19, 71-84. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.02.009 PMid:17618108

Gerard T, Gerald AL. 1981. Process and reagents for the selective separation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and for the quantification of their components. Eur. Path. (Appl.) E.P. 76, 211-223.

Gordon MH. 1996. Dietary antioxidants in disease prevention. Nat. Prod. Rep. 13, 265–73. doi:10.1039/np9961300265 PMid:8760864

Harrison D, Kathy KG, Hornig B, Drexler H. 2003. Role of oxidative stress in atherosclerosis. Am. J. Card. 91, 7A–11A. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(02)03144-2

Hecht SS. 1999. Chemoprevention of cancer by isothiocyanates, modifiers of carcinogen metabolism. J. Nutr. 129, 768S-74S. PMid:10082787

Houot O. 1985. Interpretation of clinical laboratory tests. Edit. Siest G., Henny J., Schiele F., Young D. S. Biomedical publications.

Jeffery EH, Brown AF, Kurililch AC, Keck AS, Matusheski N, Klein BP, Juvik JA. 2003. Variation in content of bioactive components in broccoli. J. Food Compos. Anal. 16, 323–330. doi:10.1016/S0889-1575(03)00045-0

Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Vuksan V. 2000. Viscous fibers, health claims, and strategies to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 401–2. PMid:10648250

Kapadia GJ, Tokuda H, Kinoshima T, Nishino H. 1996 Chemoprevention of lung and skin cancer by Beta vulgaris (Beet) root extract. Cancer Lett. 100, 211–4. doi:10.1016/0304-3835(95)04087-0

Kok N, Roberfroid M, Delzenne N. 1996. Dietary oligofructose modifies the impact of fructose on hepatic triacylglycerol metabolism. Metabolism 45, 1547–50. doi:10.1016/S0026-0495(96)90186-9

Kotani M, Matsumoto M, Fujita A, Higa S, Wang W, Suemura M, Kishimoto T, Tanaka T. 2000. Persimmon leaf extract and astragalin inhibit development of dermatitis and IgE elevation in NC/ Nga mice. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 106, 159–166. doi:10.1067/mai.2000.107194 PMid:10887319

Lampe WJ. (1999. Health effects of vegetables and fruit: assessing mechanisms of action in human experimental studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (suppl), 475S–90S. PMid:10479220

Liyana-Pathirana CM, Shahidi F. 2007. The antioxidant potential of milling fractions from breadwheat and durum. Journal of Cereal Science 45, 238-247. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2006.08.007

Martins JM, Riottot M, de Abreu MC. 2005. Cholesterollowering effects of dietary blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) in intact and ileorectal anastomosed pigs. J. Lipid Res. 46, 1539–47. doi:10.1194/jlr.M500129-JLR200 PMid:15834122

Megraw R, Dunn D, Biggs H. 1979. Mannual and continuous flow colorimetry of triglycerols by a fully enzymaic method. Clin. Chem. 25, 273-284. PMid:759021

Monfort MT, Trovato A, Kirjaainen S, Forestieri AM, Galati EM, Curto RB. 1995. Biological effects of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoids. (Note II): Hypolipidemia activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat. Farmaco 50, 595–599.

Morcos SR. 1967. The effect of protein value of the diet on the neurological manifestations produced in rats by £]–immodipropionitrile. Br. J. Nutr. 21, 269 - 274. doi:10.1079/BJN19670029 PMid:4952258

Olmo N, Turnay J, Perez-Ramos P, Lecona E, Barrasa JI, de Silanes IL, Lizarbe MA. 2007. In vitro models for the study of the effect of butyrate on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Toxicology in Vitro 21, 262-270. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2006.09.011 PMid:17084582

Park SY, Park SH, Jeon SM, Park YB, Lee SJ, Jeong TS, Choi MS. 2002. Effect of rutin and tanic acid supplements on cholesterol metabolism in rats. Nutr. Res. 22, 293–295. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(01)00398-0

Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. 2001. Dietary fiber and bodyweight regulation. Observations and mechanisms. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 48, 969-80. doi:10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70351-5

Prior RL. 2003. Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cellular oxidative damage. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 78, 570S-578S. PMid:12936951

Reitman S, Frankel S. 1957. Calorimetric methods for aspartate and alanine aminotransferase. Am. J. Clin. Path. 28, 55-60.

Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. 1997. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends in Plant Science 2, 152-159. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(97)01018-2

Roberts CK, Barnard RJ, Sindhu RK, Jurczak M, Ehdaie A, Vaziri ND. 2006. Oxidative stress and dysregulation of NAD(P)H oxidase and antioxidant enzymes in dietinduced metabolic syndrome. Metabolism 55, 928–934. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2006.02.022 PMid:16784966

Rouzaud G, Rabot S, Ratcliffe B, Duncan A.J. 2003. Influence of plant and bacterial myrosinase activity on the metabolic fate of glucosinolates in gnotobiotic rats. Br. J. Nutr. 90, 395–404. doi:10.1079/BJN2003900 PMid:12908900

Scott KJ. 2001. Detection and measurements of carotenoids by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. In: Current protocols in food analytical chemistry. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York. p. F2.2.1-F2.2.10.

Singleton VL, Rossi JA. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16, 144-158.

Slavin JL, Martini MC, Jacobs DR, Marquart L. 1999. Plausible mechanisms for the protectiveness of whole grains. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70, 459S-463S. PMid:10479218

Slavin JL, Jacobs D, Marquart L, Wiemer K. 2001. The role of whole grains in disease prevention. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101, 780–785. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00194-8

Son S, Lewis BA. 2002. Free radical scavenging and antioxidative activity of caffeic acid amide and ester analogues: structure-activity relationship. J. Agric. Food Chem. 30, 468–472. doi:10.1021/jf010830b PMid:11804514

Sosulski F, Krygier K, Hogge L. 1982. Free, esterified, and insolublebound phenolic acids. 3. Composition of phenolic acids in cereal and potato flours. J. Agric. Food Chem. 30, 337-340. doi:10.1021/jf00110a030

Stucchi AF, Terpstra AHM, Nicolosi RJ. 1995. LDL receptor activity is down-regulated similarly by a cholesterol–containing diet high in palmitic acid or high in Lauric and myristic acids in cynomolgus monkeys. J. Nutr. 125, 2055-2063. PMid:7643239

Suido H, Tanaka T, Tabei T, Takeuchi A, Okita M, Kishimoto T, Kasayama S, Higashino K. 2002. A mixed green vegetable and fruit beverage decreased the serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients. J. Agric. Food Chem. 22, 3346-50. doi:10.1021/jf0116698 PMid:12010009

Tholstrup T, Marckmann P, Vessby B, Sandstrom B. 1995. Effect of fats high in individual saturated fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein a levels in young healthy men. J. Lipid Res. 36, 1447-52. PMid:7595068

Thompson LU. 1994. Antioxidants and hormonemediated health benefits of whole grains. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 34, 473-497. doi:10.1080/10408399409527676 PMid:7811379

Toro G, Ackerman PG. 1975. Practical Clinical Chemistry, 1st edition, Little, Brown and Company, Boston USA, pp.352-359.

Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BD. 1998. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected Fruits, vegetables, and grain products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 4113-4117. doi:10.1021/jf9801973

Venn BJ, Mann JI. 2004. Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 58, 1443-1461. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601995 PMid:15162131

Warnholtz A, Mollnau H, Oelze M, Wendt M, Munzel T. 2001. Antioxidants and endothelial dysfunction in hyperlipidemia. Current Hypertension Reports 3, 53–60. doi:10.1007/s11906-001-0081-z PMid:11177709

Watson D. 1960. A simple method for the determination of serum cholesterol. Clin. Chem. Acta. 5, 637-642. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(60)90004-8

Zareba G, Serradelf N. 2004. Chemoprotective effects of broccoli and other Brassica vegetables. Drug Future 29, 1097–1104. doi:10.1358/dof.2004.029.11.868839

Zhou KQ, Yin JJ, Yu LL. 2005. Phenolic acid, tocopherol and carotenoid compositions, and antioxidant functions of hard red winter wheat bran. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 3916-3922. doi:10.1021/jf050117c PMid:15884817

Zielinska-Przyjmska M, Olejnik A, Dobrowolska-Zachwieja A, Grajek W. 2009. In vitro effects of beetroot juice and chips on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis in neutrophils from obese individuals. Phytother. Res. 23, 49–55. doi:10.1002/ptr.2535 PMid:18814207

Zulet MA, Macarulla MT, Portillo MP, Noel-Suberville C, Higueret P, Matinez JA. 1999. Lipid and glucose utilization in hypercholesterolemic rats fed a diet containing heated chickpea (Cicer Aretinum L.): a potential functional food. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 69, 403-409. doi:10.1024/0300-9831.69.6.403




How to Cite

Rashed MM, Shallan M, Mohamed DA, Fouda K, Hanna LM. Hypolipidemic effect of vegetable and cereal dietary mixtures from Egyptian sources. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2010Sep.30 [cited 2023Jan.29];61(3):261-70. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1006