Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese


  • E. Rojas-Nery Food Science Lab & Pilot Plant, Tecnológico Estudios Superiores Ecatepec
  • N. Güemes-Vera Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma Estado Hidalgo
  • O. G. Meza-Marquez Food Science Lab & Pilot Plant, Tecnológico Estudios Superiores Ecatepec
  • A. Totosaus Food Science Lab & Pilot Plant, Tecnológico Estudios Superiores Ecatepec



Carrageenan, Emulsified soybean oil, Fat replacement, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Panela-type cheese, Textural profile analysis


In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese), emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda) was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Jowder O, Kemsley EK, Wilson RH. 2002. Detection of adulteration in cooked meat products by MIR-Infrared Spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 1325–1329. PMid:11878997

AOAC, 1998. Official Method of Analysis of AOAC International (16th Ed.), Washington, DC.

Banks JM. 2004. The technology of low-fat cheese manufacture. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 57, 199–207.

Bourne MC. 1978. Texture profile analysis. Food Technol. 32, 62–66, 72.

Casal HL, Mantsch HH. 1984. Polymorphic phase behavior of phospholipid membranes studied by infrared spectroscopy. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 779, 382–401.

Cerníková M, Bunkaa F, Pavlínek V, Brezina P, Hrabe J, Valáseka P. 2008. Effect of carrageenan type on viscoelastic properties of processed cheese. Food Hydrocolloid. 22, 1054–1061.

Corredig M, Sharafbafi N, Kristo E. 2011. Polysaccharideprotein interactions in dairy matrices, control and design of structures. Food Hydrocolloid. 25, 1833–1841.

Cuibus L, Maggio R, Mures¸an V, Diaconeasa Z, Fetea F, Socaciu C. 2014. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy. Bull. UASVM Food Sci. Technol 71, 142–146.

Cunha CR, Dias AI, Viotto WH. 2010. Microstructure, texture, colour and sensory evaluation of a spreadable processed cheese analogue made with vegetable fat. Food Res. Int. 43, 723–729.

Dalgleish DG, Morris ER. 1988. Interactions between carrageenans and casein micelles: electrophoretic and hydrodynamic properties of the particles. Food Hydrocolloid. 2, 311–320.

Der G, Everitt BS. 2002. A Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using SAS. Chapman & Hall, London.

Dinkçi N, Kesenkas¸ H, Seçkin AK, Kinik O, Gönç S. 2011. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese. Grasas y Aceites 62, 275–283.

Drake MA, Herrett W, Boylston TD, Swanson BG. 1996. Lecithin improves texture of reduced-fat cheeses. J. Food Sci. 6, 639–642.

Drohan DD, Tziboula A, McNulty D, Horne D.S. 1997. Milk protein-carrageenan interactions. Food Hydrocolloid. 11, 101–107.

Dufour É, Riaublanc A. 1997. Potentiality of spectroscopic methods for the characterization of dairy products. II. Mid infrared study of the melting temperature of cream triacylglycerols and of the solid fat content in cream. Lait 77, 671–681.

Fathi Achachlouei B, Hesari J, Azadmard Damirchi S, Peighambardoust SH, Esmaiili M, Alijani S. 2013. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 19, 389–398. PMid:23729417

Fox PF, Guinee TP, Cogan TM, McSweeney PLH. 2000. Fundamentals of Cheese Science. Aspen Publishers Inc., Gaithersburg.

Giroux HJ, Constantineau S, Fustier P, Champagne CP, St-Gelais D, Lacroix M, Britten M. 2013. Cheese fortification using water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions as carrier for water soluble nutrients. Int. Dairy J. 29, 107–114.

Gu YS, Decker EA, McClements DJ. 2005. Influence of pH and carrageenan type on properties of b-lactoglobulin stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloid. 19: 83–91.

Guinee TP, McSweeney PLH. 2006. Significance of milk fat in cheese, in Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (Ed.) Advanced Dairy Chemistry, Volume 2: Lipids, 3rd ed, Springer, New York,

Gunasekaran S, Ak MM. 2000. Cheese Rheology and Texture. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Hanáková Z, Bunka F, Pavlínek V, Hudecková L, Janiš R. 2013. The effect of selected hydrocolloids on the rheological properties of processed cheese analogues made with vegetable fats during the cooling phase. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 66, 484–489.

ISO, 2011. ISO 3433:2008: Cheese- Determination of fat content- Van Gulik method. International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva.

Johnson ME, Kapoor R, McMahon DJ, McCoy DR, Narasimmon RG. 2009. Reduction of sodium and fat levels in natural and processed cheeses: scientific and technological aspects. Compr. Rev. Food. Sci. F. 8, 252–268.

Kesenkas H, Dinkçia N, Kemal Seçkin A, Kinika Ö, Gönça S. 2009. The effect of using a vegetable fat blend on some attributes of kashar cheese. Grasas Aceites 60, 41–47.

Kinsella JE. 1979. Functional properties of soy proteins. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 56, 242–258.

Langendorff V, Cuvelier G, Launay B, Michon C, Parker A, de Kruif CG. 1999. Casein micelle/iota-carrageenan interactions in milk: Influence of temperature. Food Hydrocolloid. 13, 211–218.

Langendorff V, Cuvelier G, Michon C, Launay B, Parker A, de Kruif CG. 2000. Effects of carrageenan type on the behaviour of carrageenan/milk mixtures. Food Hydrocolloid. 14, 273–280.

Livingstone KM, Lovegrove JA, Givens DI. 2012. The impact of substituting SFA in dairy products with MUFA or PUFA on CVD risk: evidence from human intervention studies. Nutrit. Res. Rev. 25, 193–206. PMid:22863409

Lobato-Calleros C, Ramírez-Santiago C, Osorio-Santiago VJ, Vernon-Carter EJ. 2002. Microstructure and texture of manchego cheese-like products made with canola oil, lipophilic, and hydrophilic emulsifiers. J. Texture Stud. 33, 165–182.

Lobato-Calleros C, Reyes-Hernández J, Beristain CI, Hornelas-Uribe Y, Sánchez-García JE, Vernon-Carter EJ. 2007. Microstructure and texture of white fresh cheese made with canola oil and whey protein concentrate in partial or total replacement of milk fat. Food Res. Int. 40, 529–537.

Lobato-Calleros C, Velázquez-Varela J, Sánchez-García J, Vernon-Carter EJ. 2003. Dynamic rheology of Mexican manchego cheeselike products containing canola oil and emulsifier blends. Food Res. Int. 36, 81–90.

Molina Ortiz SE, MC Puppo, JR Wagner. 2004. Relationship between structural changes and functional properties of soy protein isolates–carrageenan systems. Food Hydrocolloid. 18, 1045–1053.

Nilsson S, Piculell L. 1991. Helix-coil transitions of ionic polysaccharides analysed within the Poisson-Boltzmann cell model. 4. Effects of site specific counterion binding. Macromol. 24, 3804–3811.

Romeih EA, Michaelidou A, Biliaderis CG, Zerfiridis GK. 2002. Low-fat white-brined cheese made from bovine milk and two commercial fat mimetics: chemical, physical and sensory attributes. Int. Dairy J. 12, 525–540.

Sahan N, Yasar K, Hayaloglu AA, Karaca OB, Kaya A. 2008. Influence of fat replacers on chemical composition, proteolysis, texture profiles, meltability and sensory properties of low-fat Kashar cheese. J. Dairy Res. 75, 1–7. PMid:17961288

SIAP. 2014. Sistema de Información Agroalimentaria y Pesquera, Boletín de Leche octubre-diciembre 2014. SAGARPA, México. Available at URL:

Snoeren THM, Paynes TAJ, Jeunink J, Both P. 1975. Electrostatic interaction between κ-carrageenan and κ-casein. Milchwissenschaft. 30, 391–396.

Szczceniak AS. 1963. Classification of textural characteristics. J. Food Sci. 28, 385–389.

Thaiudom S, Goff HD. 2003. Effect of kappa-carrageenan on milk protein polysaccharide mixtures. Int Dairy J. 13, 763–771.

Uruakpa FO, S.D. Arntfield. 2005. Emulsifying characteristics of commercial canola protein–hydrocolloid systems. Food Res. Int. 38, 659–672.

Wang F, Liu X, Hu Y, Luo J, Lv X, Guo H, Ren F. 2014. Effect of carrageenan on the formation of rennet-induced casein micelle gels. Food Hydrocolloid. 36, 212–219.

Wang T. 2002. Soy bean oil, in Gunstone FD (Ed.) Vegetable Oils in Food Technology. Blackwell Publishing Co., London, 18–58.

Ye A, Cui J, Taneja A, Zhu X, Singh H. 2009. Evaluation of processed cheese fortified with fish oil emulsion. Food Res. Int. 42, 1093–1098.

Yu L, Hammond EG. 2000. Production and characterization of a Swiss cheese-like product from modified vegetable oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77, 917–924.



How to Cite

Rojas-Nery E, Güemes-Vera N, Meza-Marquez OG, Totosaus A. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2015Dec.30 [cited 2022Nov.29];66(4):e097. Available from: