Effects of thermal processing on physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of Balanities aegyptiaca kernels and extracted oil
Keywords:Balanities aegyptiaca, Boiling, Fatty acids, Oxidative Stability, Roasting, Tocols
In the present study, the effects of roasting and boiling on the proximate composition of the kernels as well as the physicochemical properties and oxidative stabilities of the extracted oils of Balanites aegyptiaca were investigated. Roasting was performed at 180 ˚C for 15 minutes, whereas boiling of the kernels was carried out in tap water for one hour. The oils from raw and thermally processed samples were extracted using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus and characterized. The roasting significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the peroxide value and the oxidative stability of the extracted oil in a positive way; whereas boiling had the opposite effect. The oils were composed of linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids as the major fatty acids (96%) and contained predominantly α- and γ-tocopherols (ca. 400mg/kg). The study suggests that the oil from roasted kernels could be used as a natural antioxidant for enhancing the characteristics of other edible oils via blending.
Abou-Gharbia HA, Shahidi F, Shehata AAY, Youssef MM. 1996. Oxidative stability of extracted sesame oil from raw and processed seeds. J. Food Lipids 3, 59–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.1996.tb00054.x
Akinoso R, Aboaba SA, Olajide WO. 2011. Optimization of roasting temperature and time during oil extraction from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds: A response surface methodology approach. African J. Food Agri. Nutr. Develop. 11, 5301–5317.
Al Ashaal HA, Farghaly AA, Abd El Aziz MM, Ali MA. 2010. Phytochemical investigation and medicinal evaluation of fixed oil of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits. J. Ethnopharmacol. 127, 495–501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.007 PMid:19833185
Alenyorege EA, Hussein YA, Adongo TA. 2015. Extraction yield, efficiency and loss of the traditional hot water floatation (HWF) method of oil extraction from the seeds of Allanblackia Floribunda. Inter. J. Sci Technol. Res. 4, 92–95.
American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS). 2011. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 4th edn. AOCS, Champaign, IL.
Anjum F, Anwar F, Jamil A, Iqbal M. 2006. Microwave roasting effects of the physico-chemical composition and oxidative stability of sunflower seed oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 777–784. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-5014-1
AOAC 1990. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' 15th Edition. Washington, DC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Arinola SO, Adesina K. 2014. Effect of thermal processing on the nutritional, antinutritional and antioxidant properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut). J. Food Proc. 1–4.
Balz M, Schulte E, Thier HP. 1992. Trennung von Tocopherolen und Tocotrienolen durch HPLC. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 94, 209–213. https://doi.org/10.1002/lipi.19920940604
Chapagain BP, Yehoshua Y, Wiesman Z. 2009. Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) as an arid lands sustainable Bioresource for biodiesel. Biores. Technol. 100, 1221–1226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.09.005 PMid:18848776
Cheng W-Y, Akanda JMdH, Nyam K-L. 2016. Kenaf Seed Oil: A Potential New Source of Edible Oil: Review. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 52, 57–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.03.014
El Amine HM. 1990. Trees and Shrubs of the Sudan. Ithaca Press, England.
Hefnawy TH. 2011. Effect of processing methods on nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors in lentils (Lens culinaris). J. Agric. Sci. 56, 57–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2011.07.001
Hussain SA, Dollear FG, O'connor RT. 1949. Oil from the kernels of lalob fruit, Balanites aegyptiaca. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 26, 730–732. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02903182
ISO 5509:2000 Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils— Preparation of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids; International Standard ISO 5509:2000; ISO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.
ISO 6886, 2006. Animal and vegetable fats and oils. Determination of oxidative stability (accelerated oxidation test).
Kamal-Eldin A. 2006. Effects fatty acids and tocopherols on the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 58, 1051–1061. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200600090
Manji AJ, Sarah EE, Modbbo UU. 2013. Studies on the potential of Balanites aegyptiaca seed oil as raw material for the production of liquid cleansing agents. Int. J. Phys. Sci. 8, 1655–1660.
Mariod AA, Ahmed SY, Abdelwahab SI, Cheng SF, Eltom AM, Yagoub SO, Gouk SW. 2012. Effects of roasting and boiling on the chemical composition, amino acids and oil stability of safflower seeds. Inter. J. Food Sci. Technol. 47, 1737–1743 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03028.x
Mariod AA, Matthäus B, Eichner K. 2004. Fatty acid, tocopherol, and sterol composition as well as oxidative stability of three unusual Sudanese oils. J. Food Lipids 11, 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2004.01131.x
Maydell HJVon. 1990. Trees and Shrubs of the Sahel: Their Characteristics and Uses. Verlag Josef Margraf, Scientific Books, Germany.
Mohamed AM, Wolf W, Spieb WEL. 2002. Physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatty acid composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. Kernels. Plant Foods Hum. Nutrit. 57, 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015237612018 PMid:12049150
Ndidi US, Ndidi CU, Aimola IA, Bassa OY, Mankilik M, Adamu Z. 2014. Effects of Processing (Boiling and Roasting) on the Nutritional and Antinutritional Properties of Bambara Groundnuts (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.) from Southern Kaduna, Nigeria. J. Food Proc. ID 472129, Nour AAM, Ahmed AR, Abdel-Gayoum AA. 1985. A Chemical study of Balanites Aegyptiaca L. (Lalob) fruits grown in Sudan. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36, 1254–1258.
Savage GP, Dutta PC, McNeil DL. 1999. Fatty acid and tocopherol contents and oxidative stability of Walnut oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 1059–1063.
Schwartz H, Ollilainen V, Piironen V. 2008. Tocopherols, tocotrienols and plant sterol contents of vegetable oils and industrial fats. J. Food Comp. Anal. 21, 152–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2007.07.012
Vermaak I, Kamatou GPP, Komane-Mofokeng B, Viljoen AM, Backett K. 2011. African seed oils of commercial importance-Cosmetic applications. South Afric. J. Botany 77, 920–933. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2011.07.003
Wijesundera C, Ceccato C, Fagan P, Shen Z. 2008. Seeds roasting improves the oxidative stability of Canola (B. napus) and Mustard (B. juncea) seed oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 110, 360–367. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700214
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.