Effect of ultrasound on olive oil extraction and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of extra virgin olive oil by response surface methodology (RSM)
Keywords:Extraction, Olive oil, Optimization, Quality, Ultrasound, Yield
In this study, the effects of different extraction parameters including ultrasound time, temperature and malaxation time on olive oil quality were investigated. The extraction variables ultrasound initial temperature (20–50 °C), ultrasound time (2–10 min) and malaxation time (30–50 min) were studied to obtain ideal conditions of ultrasonic treatment on the olive paste for obtaining of a greater yield in the extraction of oil, while maintaining a maximum level of commercial quality. To evaluate the level of commercial quality, absorbance in the UV region, peroxide (PV) and free acidity values (AV), the total chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenol contents, total antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of EVOOs extracted from Edremit cultivar were determined. The optimum conditions were found to be 50 °C, 2 min and 43.23 min for ultrasound initial temperature, sonication time and malaxation time, respectively. This optimal condition gave an extraction yield of 8.25 % and the acidity value of 0.24 mg oleic acid/100 g olive oil. The experimental values obtained under optimal conditions were in agreement with the theoretical values.
Abenoza M, Benito M, Salda-a G, Álvarez I, Raso J, Sánchez- Gimeno AC. 2013. Effects of Pulsed Electric Field on Yield Extraction and Quality of Olive Oil. Food Bioprocess Technol. 6, 1367–1373. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0817-6
Achat S, Tomao V, Madani K, Chibane M, Elmaataoui M, Dangles O, Chemat F. 2012. Direct enrichment of olive oil in oleuropein by ultrasound-assisted maceration at laboratory and pilot plant scale. Ultrason. Sonochem. 19, 777–786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.12.006 PMid:22281378
Aguilera MP, Beltran G, Sanchez-Villasclaras S, Uceda M, Jimenez A. 2010. Kneading olive paste from unripe "Picual" fruits: I. Effect on oil process yield. J. Food Eng. 97, 533–538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.11.013
Angerosa F, Mostallino R, Basti C, Vito R. 2001. Influence of malaxation temperature and time on the quality of virgin olive oils. Food Chem. 72, 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00194-1
Bejaoui MA, Beltran G, Aguilera MP, Jimenez A. 2016. Continuous conditioning of olive paste by high power ultrasounds: Response surface methodology to predict temperature and its effect on oil yield and virgin olive oil characteristics. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 69, 175–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2016.01.048
Bejaoui MA, Beltrán G, Sánchez-Ortiz A, Sánchez S, Jiménez A. 2015. Continuous high power ultrasound treatment before malaxation, a laboratory scale approach: Effect on virgin olive oil quality criteria and yield. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol.
Ben Brahim S, Marrakchi F, Gargouri B, Bouaziz M. 2015. Optimization of malaxing conditions using CaCO3 as a coadjuvant: A method to increase yield and quality of extra virgin olive oil cv. Chemlali. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 63, 243–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.013
Boskou D. 2007. Olive oil, Chemistry and Technology, World review of nutrition and dietetics. PMid:17167295
Clodoveo ML. 2012. Malaxation: Influence on virgin olive oil quality. Past, present and future – An overview. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 25, 13–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2011.11.004
Clodoveo ML, Durante V, La Notte D. 2013a. Working towards the development of innovative ultrasound equipment for the extraction of virgin olive oil. Ultrason. Sonochem. 20, 1261–1270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.02.001 PMid:23538120
Clodoveo ML, Durante V, La Notte D, Punzi R, Gambacorta G. 2013b. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of virgin olive oil to improve the process efficiency. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 115, 1062–1069. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201200426
Clodoveo ML, Hachicha Hbaieb R. 2013. Beyond the traditional virgin olive oil extraction systems: Searching innovative and sustainable plant engineering solutions. Food Res. Int. 54, 1926–1933. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.06.014
De Fernandez MDLA, Soto Vargas VC, Silva MF. 2014. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Monovarietal Olive Oils Produced in Argentina. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 91, 2021–2033. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-014-2558-3
Di Giovacchino L, Costantini N, Ferrante ML, Serraiocco A. 2002. Influence of malaxation time of olive paste on oil extraction yields and chemical and organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving. Grasas Aceites 53, 179–186. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2002.v53.i2.302
Espínola F, Moya M, Fernández DG, Castro E. 2009. Improved extraction of virgin olive oil using calcium carbonate as coadjuvant extractant. J. Food Eng. 92, 112–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.10.038
European Union Commission Regulation, 1991. (EEC) No 2568/91. Official European Commission Journal, Brussels.
Fiori F, Di Lecce G, Boselli E, Pieralisi G, Frega NG. 2014. Effects of olive paste fast preheating on the quality of extra virgin olive oil during storage. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 58, 511–518.
Franco MN, Galeano-Díaz T, López Ó, Fernández-Bola-os JG, Sánchez J, De Miguel C, Gil MV, Martín-Vertedor D. 2014. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil. Food Chem. 163, 289–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.091 PMid:24912728
Gandul-Rojas B, Mínguez-Mosquera MI. 1996. Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Composition in Virgin Olive Oils from Various Spanish Olive Varieties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 72, 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199609)72:1<31::AID-JSFA619>3.0.CO;2-5
Gómez-Rico A, Inarejos-García AM, Salvador MD, Fregapane G. 2009. Effect of malaxation conditions on phenol and volatile profiles in olive paste and the corresponding virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. Cv. cornicabra). J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 3587–3595. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf803505w PMid:19338278
Inarejos-García AM, Gómez-Rico A, Salvador MD, Fregapane G. 2009. Influence of malaxation conditions on virgin olive oil yield, overall quality and composition. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 228, 671–677. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-0977-9
International Olive Oil Council, 2003. IOOC Trade Standard Applying to Olive Oils and Olive – Pomace Oils.COI/T.15. NC No 3/Rev. 1, 2003.
Jiménez A, Beltrán G, Uceda M. 2007. High-power ultrasound in olive paste pretreatment. Effect on process yield and virgin olive oil characteristics. Ultrason. Sonochem. 14, 725–731. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2006.12.006 PMid:17275391
Jiménez Márquez A, Beltrán Maza G, Uceda Ojeda M, Paz Aguilera Herrera M. 2006. Empleo de ultrasonidos de potencia en le proceso de elaboracion del aceite de oliva virgen. Resultados a nivel de planta de laboratorio. rUse of high power ultrasounds in virgin olive oil extraction process. Results at laboratory scale. Grasas Aceites 57, 253–259. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2006.v57.i3.46
Kadam SU, Tiwari BK, Álvarez C, O'Donnell CP. 2015. Ultrasound applications for the extraction, identification and delivery of food proteins and bioactive peptides. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 46, 60–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2015.07.012
Montedoro G, Servili M. 1992. Simple and hydrolyzable phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. 1. Their extraction, separation, and quantitative and semiquantitative evaluation by HPLC. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 1571–1576. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00021a019
Puértolas E, Martínez de Mara-ón I. 2015. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: Impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties. Food Chem. 167, 497–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.029 PMid:25149017
Samaram S, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Ghazali HM, Bordbar S, Serjouie A. 2015. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from papaya seed by response surface methodology: Oil recovery, radical scavenging antioxidant activity, and oxidation stability. Food Chem. 172, 7–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.068 PMid:25442517
Sevim D, Tuncay O, Koseoglu O. 2013. The Effect of Olive Leaf Addition on Antioxidant Content and Antioxidant Activity of "Memecik" Olive Oils at Two Maturity Stages. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 90, 1359–1369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-013-2282-4
Stefanoudaki E, Koutsaftakis A, Harwood JL. 2011. Influence of malaxation conditions on characteristic qualities of olive oil. Food Chem. 127, 1481–1486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.120
Taticchi A, Esposto S, Veneziani G, Urbani S, Selvaggini R, Servili M. 2013. The influence of the malaxation temperature on the activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase and on the phenolic composition of virgin olive oil. Food Chem. 136, 975–983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.071 PMid:23122152
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.