Cold-pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oils from the central Anatolia region of Turkey: Characterization of phytosterols, squalene, tocols, phenolic acids, carotenoids and fatty acid bioactive compounds
Keywords:Antioxidant activity, Bioactive compound, Cold-pressed oil, Cucurbita pepo L., Phenolic acid, Tocol profile
There is a growing interest in cold-pressed oils because they present high contents of bioactive compounds. These oils have the characteristic properties of seeds and are specific products of their regions. The aim of this study was to determine the compositions and contents of fatty acids, phytosterols, squalene, tocols, phenolic acids, carotenoids and phenolic bioactives, and the free radical scavenging as well as antioxidant activities of cold-pressed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oils. Oil samples from raw pumpkin seeds cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey were prepared using a laboratory screw-pressing machine. The results indicate that cold-pressed pumpkin seed oils (PSO) have excellent quality with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (%ΣPUFAs) (53.60 ±0.06-53.73 ±0.05), total phytosterols (782.1±9.7–805.2 ±11.3 mg/100 g oil), squalene (591.3±10.6–632.5±11.4 mg/100 g oil), tocols (97.79 ±0.76?94.29 ±0.34 mg/100 g oil), phenolic acids (22.73 ±0.41–23.98 ±0.46 mg/100 g oil), carotenoids (6.95 ±0.03–7.60 ±0.03 mg/100 g oil), total phenolics (3.96 ±0.13 –5.82±0.15 mg GAE/100 g), free radical-scavenging activity (5.70 ±0.13?7.35 ±0.15 mg GAE/100 g) and total antioxidant activity (26.67±0.97-38.89±1.41 mg GAE/100 g) values. Thus, this study demonstrates that the cold- pressed PSOs from the central Anatolia regions of Turkey are an excellent source of natural bioactive compounds, free of chemical contaminants and nutritious.
Alothman M, Bhat R, Karim AA. 2009. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected tropical fruits from Malaysia, extracted with different solvents. Food Chem. 115, 785–788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.005
Andjelkovic M, Camp JV, Trawka A, Verhe R. 2010. Phenolic compounds and some quality parameters of pumpkin seed oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 112, 208–217. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200900021
Arslan FN, Kara H. 2016. Fully Automated Three?Dimensional Column?Switching SPE–FIA–HPLC System for the Characterization of Lipids by a Single Injection: Part I. Instrumental Design and Chemometric Approach to Assess the Effect of Experimental Settings on the Response of ELSD. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 93, 11–26. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-015-2750-0
Arslan FN, Sapcı AN, Duru F, Kara H. 2017. A study on monitoring of frying performance and oxidative stability of cottonseed and palm oil blends in comparison with original oils. Int. J. Food Prop. 20, 704–717. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2016.1177544
Feng-Lin S, Ren-You G, Yuan Z, Qin X, Lei K, Hua-Bin L. 2010. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Selected Chinese Medicinal Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, 2362–2372. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11062362 PMid:20640157 PMCid:PMC2904921
Fruhwirth GO, Hermetter A. 2007. Seeds and oil of the Styrian oil pumpkin: Components and biological activities. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109, 1128–1140. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700105
Fruhwirth GO, Wenzl T, El-Toukhy R, Wagner FS, Hermetter A. 2003. Fluorescence screening of antioxidant capacity in pumpkin seed oils and other natural oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 105, 266–274. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200390055
Gu Q, David F, Lynen F, Vanormelingen P, Vyverman W, Rumpel K, Xu G, Pat S. 2011. Evaluation of ionic liquid stationary phases for one dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acids in marine biota. J. Chromatogr. A 1218, 3056–3063. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2011.03.011 PMid:21450294
Jafari M, Goli SAH, Rahimmalek M. 2012. The chemical composition of the seeds of Iranian pumpkin cultivars and physicochemical characteristics of the oil extract. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 114, 161–167. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201100102
Jiao J, Li ZG, Gai QY, Li XJ, Wei FY, Fu YJ, Wei M. 2014. Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from pumpkin seeds and evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions and antioxidant activities. Food Chem. 147, 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.079
Kostadinovic Velickovska S, Bruhl L, Mitrev S, Mirhosseini H, Matthaus M. 2015. Quality evaluation of cold-pressed edible oils from Macedonia. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 117, 2023–2035. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400623
Kulaitiene J, Jariene E, Danilcenko H, Kita A, Venskutoniene E. 2016. Oil pumpkins seeds and their quality. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 4, 349-352.
Latif S, Anwar S. 2011. Aqueous enzymatic sesame oil and protein extraction. Food Chem. 125, 679–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.064
Mateos R, Espartero JL, Trujillo M, Ríos JJ, León-Camacho M, Alcudia F, Arturo C. 2001. Determination of Phenols, Flavones, and Lignans in Virgin Olive Oils by Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Ultraviolet Detection. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 2185–2192. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0013205
Mariod AA, Yousif MA, Matthaüs B, Khaleel G, Siddig A, Gabra AM, Siddig IA. 2009. A Comparative Study of the Properties of Six Sudanese Cucurbit Seeds and Seed Oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 86, 1181–1188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1459-3
Molyneux P. 2004. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 26, 211–219.
Nederal S, Skevin D, Kraljic K, Obranovic M, Papesa SI, Bataljaku A. 2012. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of roasted and cold pressed pumpkin seed oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 89, 1763–1770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-012-2076-0
Nederal S, Petrovic M, Vincek D, Pukec D, Skevin D, Kraljic K, Obranovic M. 2014. Variance of quality parameters and fatty acid composition in pumpkin seed oil during three crop seasons. Ind. Crops Prod. 60, 15–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.05.044
Nyam KL, Tan V, Lai V, Long K, Che Man YB. 2009. Physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of selected seed oils. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 42, 1396–1403.
Nawirska-Olszanska A, Kita A, Biesiada A, Sokó?-?etowska A, Kucharska AZ. 2013. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars. Food Chem. 139, 155–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.009 PMid:23561092
Omah BD, Ladet S, Godfrey DV, Liang J, Girard B. 2000. Characteristics of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) seed oil. Food Chem. 69, 187–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00260-5
Parry J, Zhigang H, Luthera M, Lan S, Kequan Z, Liangli Y. 2006. Characterization of Cold-Pressed Onion, Roasted Pumpkin, and Milk Thistle Seed Oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 847–854. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-5036-8
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. 1999. Spectrophotometric Quantitation of Antioxidant Capacity through the Formation of a Phosphomolybdenum Complex: Specific Application to the Determination of Vitamin E. Anal. Biochem. 269, 337– 341. https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1999.4019
Rabrenovic BB, Dimic EB, Novakovic MM, Tesevic VV, Basic ZN. 2014. The most important bioactive components of cold pressed oil from different pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 55, 521–527.
Rezig L, Chouaibi M, Msaada K, Hamdi S. 2012. Chemical composition and profile characterisation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oil. Ind. Crop. Prod. 37, 82–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.12.004
Ryan E, Galvin K, O'Connor TP, Maguire AR, O'Brien NM. 2007. Phytosterol, Squalene, Tocopherol Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Seeds, Grains, and Legumes. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 62, 85–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-007-0046-8 PMid:17594521
Siger A, Nogala-Kalucka M, Lampart-Szczapa E. 2008. The content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in cold-pressed plant oils. J. Food Lipids 15, 137–149. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2007.00107.x
Stevenson DG, Eller FJ, Wang L, Jay-Lin J, Wang T, Inglett GE. 2007. Oil and Tocopherol Content and Composition of Pumpkin Seed Oil in 12 Cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 4005–4013. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0706979 PMid:17439238
Tuberoso CIG, Kowalczyk A, Sarritzu E, Cabras P . 2007. Determination of antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity in commercial oil seeds for food use. Food Chem. 103, 1494–1501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.014
Vujasinovic V, Djilas S, Dimic E, Romanic R, Takaci A. 2010. Shelf life of cold-pressed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil obtained with a screw press. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87, 1497–1505. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1630-x
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.