Effects of the drying process on the fatty acid content, phenolic profile, tocopherols and antioxidant activity of baru almonds (Dipteryx alata Vog.)
Keywords:Antioxidant activity, Bioactive compounds, Brazilian Cerrado, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Oilseeds
This study carried out a chromatographic and spectrophotometric characterization of the bioactive compounds, antioxidants, phenolics, tocopherols, sterols and fatty acids of baru almonds “in natura” and submitted to drying processes. It was determined that baru “in natura” almonds presented high levels of phenolic compounds, vitamin C, antioxidants, phenolics, sterols, total monounsaturated fatty acids and low thrombogenic, and atherogenic indexes. During the process of drying it at 65 °C for 30 minutes, a decrease was noted in the levels of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, anthocyanins, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, quercetin, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The same condition resulted in an increase in the levels of gallic acid, rutin, catechin, trans-cinnamic acid, vanillin, m-coumaric acid, tocopherols, monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant activity (ORAC and DPPH). When submitted to a temperature of 105 ºC for 30 minutes the same behavior was seen with a reduction in the vitamin C and ORAC contents and increased presence of flavonoids.
Aazza S, Lyoussi B, Miguel MG. 2011. Antioxidant activity of some Morrocan hydrosols. J. Med. Plants Res. 5, 6688-6696. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR11.1176
American Heart Association Guidelines online [Internet]. c2015 - 2016. CPR & ECC: AHA; [cited 2016 Nov 16].
AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 15th ed. Washington, DC, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. p. 1990.
D'archivio M, Filesi C, Varì R, Scazzocchio B, Masella R. 2010. Bioavailability of the Polyphenols: Status and Controversies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, 1321-1342. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11041321 PMid:20480022 PMCid:PMC2871118
Faria PB, Cantarelli VS, Filho ET, Pinto AMBG, Faria JH, Rocha MFM, Bressan MC. 2015. Lipid profile and cholesterol of pork with the use of glycerin in feeding. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 67, 535-546. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-7112
Fatin NR, Azrina A. 2017. Comparison of vitamin C content in citrus fruits by titration and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Int. Food Res. 24, 726-733.
Folch J, Lees M, Stanley SA. 1957. A simple method for isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 479-503.
Fraguas RM, Simão AA, Leal RS, Santos CM, Rocha DA, Tavares TS, Abreu CMP. 2014. Chemical composition of processed baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) almonds: Lyophilization and roasting. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 9, 1061- 1069. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2014.8469
Freitas LS, Jacques RA, Richter MF, Silva AL, Caramão EB. 2008. Pressurized liquid extraction of vitamin E from Brazilian grape seed oil. J. Chromatogr. A 1200, 80-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2008.02.067 PMid:18343386
Giusti MM, Wrolstad RE. 2001. Characterization and Measurement of Anthocyanins by UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 0 (1) F1.2.1-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471142913.faf0102s00
Guimarães EL, Franceschi MF, Andrade C, Guaragna RM, Borojevic R, Margis R. 2007. Hepatic stellate cell line modulates lipogenic transcription factors. Liver Int. 27, 1255-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01578.x PMid:17919238
Igual M, García-Martínez E, Martín-Esparza N, Martínez- Navarrete N. 2012. Effect of processing on the drying kinetics and functional value of dried apricot. Food Res. Int. 47, 284-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.07.019
Kenny AP. 1952. The determination of cholesterol by the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. Biochem. J. 52, 611-619. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0520611 PMid:13018288 PMCid:PMC1198067
Kornsteiner M, Karl-Heinz W, Elmadfa I. 2006. Tocopherols and total phenolics in 10 different nut types. Food Chem. 98, 381-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.033
Lemos MRB, Siqueira EM, Arruda SF, Zambiazi RC. 2012. The effect of roasting on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog.). Food Res. Int. 48, 592-597. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.05.027
Lemos MRB, Zambiazi RC, de Almeida EM, de Alencar ER. 2016. Tocopherols and Fatty Acid Profile in Baru Nuts (Dipteryx Alata Vog.), Raw and Roasted: Important Sources in Nature that Can Prevent Diseases. Food Sci. Nutr. Technol. 1, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.23880/FSNT-16000107
Liu G, Guasch-Ferre M, Hu Y, Li Y, Hu FB, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Rexrode K, Sun Q. 2019. Nut Consumption in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Mortality among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Circ. Res. 19, 1-18.
Liu Y, Kitts D. 2011. Confirmation that the Maillard reaction is the principle contributor to the antioxidant capacity of coffee brews. Food Res. Int. 44, 2418-2424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.12.037
Macáková K, Koleckár V, Cahlíková L, Chlebeck J, Hostálková A, Kuca K, Opletal L. 2014. Tannins and their Influence on Health. Rec. Adv. Med. Chem. 1, 159-208. https://doi.org/10.2174/9781608057962114010009
Milardovic S, Ivekovic D, Grabaric BS. 2006. A novel amperometric method for antioxidant activity determination using DPPH free radical. Bioelectrochem. 68, 175-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2005.06.005 PMid:16139574
Miller HE. 1971. A simplified method for the evaluation of antioxidant. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 48, 91-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02635693
Miraliakbari H, Shahidi F. 2008. Oxidative stability of tree nut oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 4751-4759. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8000982 PMid:18494484
Naczk M, Shahidi F.2004. Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. J. Chromatogr. A 1054, 95-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(04)01409-8
Palombini SV, Claus T, Maruyama SA, Carbonera F, Montanher PF, Visentainer JV, Matsushita M. 2016. Optimization of a New Methodology for Determination of Total Phenolic Content in Rice Employing Fast Blue BB and QUENCHER Procedure. J. Braz. Chem. Soc.7, 1188-1194. https://doi.org/10.5935/0103-5053.20160013
Pasqualone A, Laddomada B, Spina A, Todaro A, Guzmàn C, Summo C, Mita G, Giannone V. 2018. Almond by-products: Extraction and characterization of phenolic compounds and evaluation of their potential use in composite dough with wheat flour. LWT 89, 299-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.10.066
Ramaiya SD, Bujang JS, Zakaria MH, Kinga WS, Sahrira MAS. 2013. Sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in passion fruit (Passiflora) cultivars. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93, 1198-1205. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5876 PMid:23027609
Rodríguez-Bencomo JJ, Kelebek H, Soezdag AS, Rodríguez- Alcalá LM, Fontecha J, Selli S. 2015. Characterization of the aroma-active, phenolic, and lipid profiles of the pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut as affected by the single and double roasting process. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63, 7830-7839. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02576 PMid:26301818
Santos-Silva J, Bessa RJB, Santos-Silva F. 2002. Effects of genotype, feeding system and slaughter weigt on the quality of light lambs. Fatty acid composition of meat. Livest. Prod. Sci. 77, 187-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00059-3
Shahidi F, Yeo J. 2016. Insoluble-Bound Phenolics in Food. Molecules 21, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21091216 PMid:27626402 PMCid:PMC6274541
Ulbricht TLV, Southgate DAT. 1991. Coronary Heart Disease: Seven Dietary Factors. Lancet 338, 985-992. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)91846-M
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.