Biochemical, compositional, and spectral analyses of İsot (Urfa pepper) seed oil and evaluation of its functional characteristics
Keywords:Alpha-glucosidase, Antimicrobial activity, Capsaicin, Carotenoid, Pepper seed oil, Phenolics
In this study, the physicochemical, functional, and antimicrobial properties of pepper seed oil (PSO) were determined. PSO was subjected to differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), fatty acid composition, carotenoid, capsaicin, and tocopherol analyses. LC-ESI-MS/MS and NMR were used to characterize and quantify phytochemicals. Resveratrol, luteolin, and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid were the principal phenolics in PSO. A high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (85.3%), especially linoleic acid (73.7%) is present in PSO. Capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, zeaxanthin, and capsanthin were determined in PSO at concentrations of 762.92, 725.73, 62.40, 643.23, 29.51, 16.83 ppm, respectively. PSO displayed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase rather than α-amylase. The antimicrobial activity of PSO was tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Aspergillus brasiliensis and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial potential of PSO was expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and inhibition zone (IZ) diameter. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, capsaicin, carotenoid, tocopherol, resveratrol contents; the antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of PSO indicated its nutritional value and health promoting nature for the well-being of humans.
AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis, vol. 67, 14th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA. pp. 503–515.
Apak R, Güçlü K, Özyürek M, Çelik SE. 2007. Mechanism of antioxidant capacity assays and the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Microchim. Acta 160, 413–419.
Arimboor R, Natarajan RB, Menon KR, Chandrasekhar LP, Moorkoth V. 2014. Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: Analysis and stability—a review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52, 1258–1271.
Asnin L, Park SW. 2015. Isolation and analysis of bioactive compounds in Capsicum peppers. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 55 (2), 254–289.
Baenas N, Belović M, Ilic N, Moreno DA, García-Viguera C. 2019. Industrial use of pepper (Capsicum annum L.) derived products: Technological benefits and biological advantages. Food Chem. 274, 872–885.
Baur JA, Sinclair DA. 2006. Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: The in vivo evidence. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5, 493– 506.
Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. 1996. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP Assay. Anal. Biochem. 239, 70–76.
Bosland PW, Votava EJ. 2000. Introduction. Peppers: Vegetable and spice capsicums. CABI. 1–12.
Calligaris S, Manzocco L, Conte LS, Nicoli MC. 2004. Application of a modified arrhenius equation for the evaluation of oxidation rate of sunflower oil at subzero temperatures. J. Food Sc. 69, 361–366.
Çam M, Hışıl Y, Durmaz G. 2009. Classification of eight pomegranate juices based on antioxidant capacity measured by four methods. Food Chem. 112, 721–726.
Chen L, Kang YH. 2013. In vitro inhibitory effect of oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa Makino) seed on key enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes: Assessment of anti-diabetic potential of functional food. J. Funct Foods 5 (2), 981–986.
Chougui N, Tamendjari A, Hamidj W, Hallal S, Barras A, Richard T, Larbat R. 2013. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds. Food Chem. 139, 796–803.
Collins MD, Wasmund LM, Bosland PW. 1995. Improved method for quantifying Capsaicinoids in capsicum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Hort. Sci. 30, 137–139.
Desmedt A, Culot C, Deroanne C, Durant F, Gibon V. 1990. Influence of cis and trans double bonds on the thermal and structural properties of monoacid triglycerides. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67, 653–660.
Di Sotto A, Vecchiato M, Abete L, Toniolo C, Giusti AM, Mannina L, Locatelli M, Nicoletti M, Di Giacomo S. 2018. Capsicum annuum L. var. Cornetto di Pontecorvo PDO: Polyphenolic profile and in vitro biological activities. J. Funct. Foods. 40, 679–691.
El-Seedi HR, Taher EA, Sheikh BY, Anjum S, Saeed A, AlAjmi MF, Göransson U. 2018. Hydroxycinnamic Acids: Natural sources, biosynthesis, possible biological activities, and roles in Islamic Medicine. Stud. Nat. Prod. Chem. 55, 269–292.
Figueiredo NR, Meena M, Soni A. 2013. Capsaicin: a review. J. Dentofacial. Sci. Available from http://journalofdentofacialsciences.com (Accessed 27.11.13).
Fromm M, Bayha S, Kammerer DR, Carle R. 2012. Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and tocopherols in seed oils recovered from different rosaceae species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60, 10733–10742.
Hayman M, Kam PCA. 2008. Capsaicin: A review of its pharmacology and clinical applications. Curr. Anaesth. Crit. Care. 19, 338–343.
Jarret RL, Levy IJ, Potter TL, Cermak SC. 2013. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp. J. Food Compos. Anal. 30, 102–108.
Jayaprakasha GK, Bae H, Crosby K, Jifon JL, Patil BS. 2012. Bioactive compounds in peppers and their antioxidant potential. Hispanic Foods: Chemistry and Bioactive Compounds 43–56.
Karaosmanoglu H, Soyer F, Ozen B, Tokatli F. 2010. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Turkish extra virgin olive oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58 (14), 8238–8245.
Lin J, Opoku AR, Geheeb-Keller M, Hutchings AD, Terblanche SE, K. Jäger A, Van Staden J. 1999. Preliminary screening of some traditional zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. J. Ethnopharmacol. 68, 267–274.
Liu Y, Huang J, Zheng X, Yang X, Ding Y, Fang T, Huang XF. 2017. Luteolin, a natural flavonoid, inhibits methylglyoxal induced apoptosis via the mTOR/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. Sci. Rep. 7, 7877.
Materska M, Perucka I. 2005. Antioxidant activity of the main phenolic compounds isolated from hot pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 1750– 1756.
McDougall GJ, Shpiro F, Dobson P, Smith P, Blake A, Stewart D. 2005. Different polyphenolic components of soft fruits inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 2760–2766.
Medina E, Romero C, Brenes M, De Castro A. 2007. Antimicrobial activity of olive oil, vinegar, and various beverages against Foodborne Pathogens. J. Food Prot. 70, 1194–1199.
Myat MW, Abdulkarim SM, Ghazali HM, Roselina K. 2009. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of palm olein and peanut oil blends. J. Food Agric. Environ. 7, 175–181
Othman ZAA, Ahmed YBH, Habila MA, Ghafar AA. 2011. Determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in capsicum fruit samples using high performance liquid chromatography. Molecules 16, 8919–8929.
Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. 2009. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxidative Med. Cell. Longev. 2, 270–278.
Pinheiro-Sant’Ana HM, Guinazi M, Oliveira, da Silva Oliveira D, Della Lucia CM, Reis BdeL, Brandão SCC. 2011. Method for simultaneous analysis of eight vitamin E isomers in various foods by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. J. Chromatogr. 1218, 8496–8502.
Rubilar M, Jara C, Poo Y, Acevedo F, Gutierrez C, Sineiro J, Shene C. 2011. Extracts of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.): Sources of antioxidant compounds and α-glucosidase/α-amylase inhibitors. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 1630–1637.
Sandoval-Castro CJ, Valdez-Morales M, Oomah BD, Gutiérrez- Dorado R, Medina-Godoy S, Espinosa-Alonso LG. 2017. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in scalded Jalapeño pepper industrial byproduct (Capsicum annuum). J. Food Sci. Technol. 54, 1999–2010.
Savorani F, Rasmussen MA, Mikkelsen MS, Engelsen SB. 2013. A primer to nutritional metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Food Res. Int. 54 (1), 1131–1145.
Semeniuc CA, Pop CR, Rotar AM. 2017. Antibacterial activity and interactions of plant essential oil combinations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. J. Food Drug Anal. 25, 403–408.
Shahidi F, Ambigaipalan P. 2018. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their health benefits. Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 9, 345–381.
Tan CP, Che Man YB. 2002. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of palm oil, palm oil based products and coconut oil: Effects of scanning rate variation. Food Chem. 76, 89–102.
Vyas M. 2017. Nutritional profile of spinach and its antioxidant and antidiabetic evaluation. Int. J. Green Pharm. 11, 192–197
Walsh BM, Hoot SB. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of Capsicum (Solanaceae) using DNA sequences from two Noncoding Regions: The chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer region and nuclear waxy introns. Int. J. Plant Sci. 162, 1409–1418.
Yılmaz E, Sevgi Arsunar E, Aydeniz B, Güneşer O. 2015. Cold pressed capia pepperseed (Capsicum Annuum L.) oils: Composition, aroma, and sensory properties. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 117, 1016–1026.
Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 64, 555–559
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.