Batoko plum (Flacourtia inermis) peel extract attenuates deteriorative oxidation of selected edible oils




Antioxidant efficacy, Coconut oil, Flacourtia inermis, Oxidative stability, Sunflower oil


The oxidation of oils has an adverse effect on the organoleptic properties and shelf-life of stored oils. Flacourtia inermis is one of the underutilized fruits grown in Sri Lanka with promising antioxidant properties. F. inermis peel extract (FIPE) was used to retard rancidity in edible oils. The efficacy of added FIPE (500, 1000, 2000 ppm) on sunflower oil (SO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) was monitored at 3-day intervals at 65 ± 5 °C against a positive control (α-tocopherol at 500 ppm level) using Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and Peroxide Value (PV). Oils without FIPE were used as the control. Antioxidant efficacy (IC50) and Total Phenol Content (TPC) of FIPE were determined by DPPH assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the oxidative stability. The IC50 value and TPC of FIPE were 227.14 ± 4.12 µg·mL-1 and 4.87 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g extract, respectively. After 21 days, VCO (control) sample exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher FFA and PV than the treatments. FIPE exhibited comparable results with α-tocopherol. Conclusively, FIPE had strong antioxidant properties and thus, could be used as an alternative to α-tocopherol to improve the oxidative stability of virgin coconut oil and sunflower oil. However, only minor differences in the FTIR spectra were detected in treated and untreated virgin coconut and sunflower oil samples after 21 days storage at 65 ± 5 °C.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdelazim AA, Mahmoud A, Ramadan-Hassanien MF. 2013. Oxidative stability of vegetable oils as affected by sesame extracts during accelerated oxidative storage. J. Food Sci. Technol. 50, 868-878. PMid:24425993 PMCid:PMC3722409

Alakolanga AGAW, Siriwardane AMDA, Kumar NS, Jayasinghe L, Jaiswal R, Kuhnert N. 2014. LC-MSn identification and characterization of the phenolic compounds from the fruits of Flacourtia indica (Burm. F.) Merr. and Flacourtia inermis Roxb. Food Res. Int. 62, 388-396.

Alakolanga AG, Kumar NS, Jayasinghe L, Fujimoto Y. 2015. Antioxidant property and α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase inhibiting activities of Flacourtia inermis fruits: characterization of malic acid as an inhibitor of the enzymes. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52, 8383. PMid:26604419 PMCid:PMC4648892

Ali AMA, El-Nour MEM, Yagi SM. 2018. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizome, callus and callus treated with some elicitors. J. Genet. Eng. Biotechnol. 16, 677-682. PMid:30733788 PMCid:PMC6353720

Annegowda HV, Anwar LN, Mordi MN, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM. 2010. Influence of sonication on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Terminalia catappa L. leaves. Pharmacognosy. Res. 2, 368-373. PMid:21713141 PMCid:PMC3111697

AOAC 940.28. 2016. Fatty acids (Free) in crude oil and refined oils. In: Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 20 th ed. Maryland: AOAC International.

AOAC 965.33. 2016. Peroxide value in oils and fats. In: Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 20 th ed. Maryland: AOAC International.

Arshad MU, Amjad MU. 2012. Medicinal use of sunflower oil and present status of sunflower in Pakistan: A Review Study. Sci. Tech. Dev. 31, 99-106.

Besbes S, Blecker C, Deroanne C, Lognay G, Drira NE, Attia H. 2004. Quality characteristics and oxidative stability of date seed oil during storage. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 10, 333-338.

Capuano E, Oliviero T, Açar ÖÇ, Gökmen V, Fogliano V. 2010. Lipid oxidation promotes acrylamide formation in fat-rich model systems. Food Res. Int. 43, 1021-1026.

Carelli AA, Franco IC, Crapiste GH. 2005. Effectiveness of added natural antioxidants in sunflower oil. Grasas Aceites 56, 303-310.

Choe E, Min DB. 2006. Mechanisms and Factors for Edible Oil Oxidation. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 5, 69-186.

Falowo AB, Fayemi PO, Muchenje V. 2014. Natural antioxidants against lipid-protein oxidative deterioration in meat and meat products: A review. Food Res. Int. 64, 171-181. PMid:30011637

Guillén MD, Cabo N. 2002. Fourier transform infrared spectra data versus peroxide and anisidine values to determine oxidative stability of edible oils. Food Chem. 77, 503-510.

Guillén MD, Goicoechea E. 2007. Detection of primary and secondary oxidation products by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in sunflower oil during storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 10729-10736. PMid:18038977

Hamed SF, Allam MA. 2006. Application of FTIR spectroscopy in the determination of antioxidant efficiency in sunflower oil. J. of Appl. Sc. Res. 2, 27-33.

ISO 14502-1. 2005. Determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea - Part 1: Content of total polyphenols in tea - Colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Geneva: ISO.

Jayasinghe L, Lakdusinghe M, Hara N, Fujimoto Y. 2012. Phenolic constituents from the fruit juice of Flacourtia inermis. Nat. Prod. Res. 26, 278-281. PMid:21985676

Latha RB. 2009. Storage stability of sunflower oil with added natural antioxidant concentrate from sesame seed oil. J. Oleo Sci. 58, 453-459. PMid:19654454

Lercker G, Rodriguez-Estrada MT. 2002. Cholesterol oxidation mechanism, in Guardiola F, Dutta PC, Codony R, Savage GP. (Eds.). Cholesterol and phytosterol oxidation products: Analysis, occurrence and biological effects, Champaign, IL: AOCS Press, pp. 1-26.

Liew SS, Ho WY, Yeap SK, Sharifudin SAB. 2018. Phytochemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of Citrus sinensis peel extracts. Peer J. 6, e5331. eCollection 2018 PMid:30083463 PMCid:PMC6078072

Ma JK, Zhang H, Tsuchiya T, Akiyama Y, Chen JY. 2015. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 21, 163-174. PMid:24474189

Madhavi BR, Devi NKD, Mrudula BS, Babu RN. 2010. The importance of biodegradable bio-oil-Sunflower. Int. J. Pharm. Tech. Res. 2, 1913-1915.

Marina AM, Rosli WI, Noorhidayah M. 2013. Quantitative analysis of peroxide value in virgin coconut oil by ATRFTIR spectroscopy. Open Conf. Proc. J. 4, 53-56.

Naczk M, Shahidi F. 2004. Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. J. Chromatogr. A. 1054, 95-111.

Piyathunga ALI, Mallawaarachchi MALN, Madhujith WMT. 2016. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Underutilized Fruits Grown in Sri Lanka. Tropl. Agricl. Res. 27, 277-286.

Rohman A, Che Man YB. 2011. Potential use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopic method for determination of virgin coconut oil and extra virgin olive oil in ternary mixture systems. Food Anal. Methods 4, 155-162.

Rohman A, Che Man YB. 2013. Application of FTIR spectroscopy for monitoring the stabilities of selected vegetable oils during thermal oxidation. Int. J. Food Pro. 16, 1594-1603.

Rohman A, Che Man YB, Ismail A, Hashim P. 2011. Monitoring the oxidative stability of virgin coconut oil during oven test using chemical indexes and FTIR spectroscopy.Int. Food Res. J. 18, 303-310.

Smith SA, King RE, Min DB. 2005. Oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil. Food Chem. 102, 1208-1213.

Szydłowska-Czerniak A, Rabiej D. 2018. Octylsinapate as a new antioxidant to improve oxidative stability and antioxidant activity of rapeseed oil during accelerated storage.Eur. Food Res. Technol. 244, 1397-1406.

Van de Voort FR, Ismail AA, Sedman J, Emo G. 1994. Monitoring the oxidation of edible oils by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71, 243-253.

Villarino BJ, Dy LM, Lizada M. 2007. Descriptive sensory evaluation of virgin coconut oil and refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 40, 193-199.

Wójcicki K, Khmelinskii I, Sikorski M, Sikorska E. 2015. Near and mid infrared spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis in studies of oxidation of edible oils. Food Chem. 187, 416-423. PMid:25977045



How to Cite

Wedamulla N, Wijesinghe W. Batoko plum (Flacourtia inermis) peel extract attenuates deteriorative oxidation of selected edible oils. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2021Sep.14 [cited 2021Oct.19];72(3):e416. Available from:




Funding data

Uva Wellassa University
Grant numbers UWU/RG/2018/004