Development and characterization of ethanol-free spearmint essential oil nanoemulsion for food applications using the low energy technique
Keywords:Essential oil, Food applications, Low energy, Nanoemulsion, Solvent-free
Different emulsifiable concentrates containing spearmint essential oil (SEO) were made and evaluated for their potential for giving ethanol-free nanoemulsion spontaneously upon dilution into water. Each one of these formulas had its specific composition regarding the type of excipients, surfactants, surfactant/SEO ratio and surfactant concentration. The results of this evaluation indicated that the chemical composition of SEO has a profound effect on the formation and physical stability of the nanoemulsion. The incorporation of excipients such as long chain triglyceride and propylene glycol into the emulsifiable concentrates at only 1.0% can lead to a stable nanoemulsion that resists Ostwald ripening. A particle size measurement showed that the diameter of SEO in the nanoemulsion was 28.2 nm and its nanostructure was maintained for 3 months. The application of a mixture of binary nonionic food-permitted surfactants enhanced the thermal stability of the nanoemulsion at up to 50 ᵒC. The developed ethanol-free SEO nanoemulsion has promising industrial applications in food and beverage flavoring.
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