Color of extra virgin olive oils enriched with carotenoids from microalgae: influence of ultraviolet exposure and heating
Keywords:Extra virgin olive oil, Scenedesmus almeriensis, CIELAB system, Carotenoids
A carotenoid-rich extract containing 2.5 mg/mL of lutein and 3.3 mg/mL of β-carotene from the microalga Scenedesmus almeriensis was added to ten extra virgin olive oils from four Spanish cultivars with differing degrees of ripeness, obtaining carotenoid enriched oils with lutein and β-carotene concentrations of 0.082 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. Extra virgin olive oils enriched with carotenoids from microalgae were studied by analyzing the effect on color of three different treatments: ultraviolet exposure, microwave heating and immersion bath heating. The methodology was designed to simulate, in controlled laboratory conditions, the effects of household treatments. Spectrophotometric color measurements were then performed to monitor color changes in the enriched and non-enriched extra virgin olive oil samples. Enriched oils are much more chromatic, darker and redder than natural oils. After 55 days UV irradiation, 40 min microwave heating, and 72 hours thermostatic heating, the average color differences for natural/enriched extra virgin olive oils were 98/117, 15/9 and 57/28 CIELAB units, respectively. In general, increasing temperature and ultraviolet exposure produced higher CIELAB color differences in the non-enriched samples. The addition of microalga extracts to extra virgin olive oils was found to induce some color stability and may constitute a future way of increasing the daily intake of beneficial bioactive compounds such as carotenoids.
Acién FG, Fernández JM, Magán JJ, Molina,E. 2012. Production cost of a real microalgae production plant and strategies to reduce it. Biotechnol. Adv. 30, 1344-1353.
Borges TH, Pereira JA, Cabrera-Vique C, Seiquer I. 2017. Study of the antioxidant potential of Arbequina extra virgin olive oils from Brazil and Spain applying combined models of simulated digestion and cell culture markers. J. Funct. Foods 37, 209-218.
Cavallo C, Piqueras-Fiszman B. 2017. Visual elements of packaging shaping healthiness evaluations of consumers: The case of olive oil. J. Sens. Stud. 32, 1-9.
Cerón MC, Campos I, Sánchez JF, Acién FG, Molina E, Fernández-Sevilla JM. 2008. Recovery of lutein from microalgae biomass: Development of a process for Scenedesmus almeriensis biomass. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 11761-11766.
Cichelli A, Pertesana GP. 2004. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of chlorophylls, pheophytins and carotenoids in virgin olive oils: Chemometric approach to variety classification. J. Chromatogr. A 1046, 141-146.
CIE 015:2018, Colorimetry, 4th Edition. CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 2018. https://cie.co.at/publications/colorimetry-4th-edition
EFSA. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of mixed carotenes (E 160a (i)) and beta-carotene (E 160a (ii)) as a food additive. 2012. 10. 2593.
Fernández-Vázquez R, Stinco CM, Hernanz D, Heredia FJ, Vicario IM. 2013. Colour training and colour differences thresholds in orange juice. Food Qual. Prefer. 30 (2), 320-327.
Garcia-Oliveira P, Jimenez-Lopez C, Lourenço-Lopes C, Chamorro F, Pereira AG, Carrera-Casais A, Fraga-Corral M, Carpena M, Simal-Gandara J, Prieto MA. 2021. Evolution of flavors in extra virgin olive oil shelf-life. Antioxidants 10, 1-20.
Gutiérrez R, Gutiérrez F. 1986. Método rápido para definir el color de los aceites de oliva vírgenes. Grasas Aceites 37, 282-284.
Huang M, Cui G, Melgosa M, Sánchez-Marañón M, Li C, Luo MR, Liu H. 2015. Power functions improving the performance of color-difference formulas. Opt. Express 23, 597-610.
Iddir M, Degerli C, Dingeo G, Desmarchelier C, Schleeh T, Borel P, Larondelle Y, Bohn T. 2019. Whey protein isolate modulates beta-carotene bioaccessibility depending on gastro-intestinal digestion conditions. Food Chem. 291, 157-166.
IOC. International Olive Oil Council [Online]. World olive oil figures-consumption, 2018. Avilable at http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/estaticos/view/131-world-olive-oil-figures?lang=es_ES. Accessed 07.2019.
IOC. International Olive Council [Online]. World olive oil figures - production, 2013. Available at: <http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/estaticos/view/131-world-olive-oil-figures> Accessed 11.02.14.
Issaoui M, Flamini G, Souid S, Bendini A, Barbieri S, Gharbi I, Toschi TG, Cioni PL, Hammami M. 2016. How the addition of spices and herbs to virgin olive oil to produce flavored oils affects consumer acceptance. Nat. Prod. Commun., 11, 775-780 .
Limón P. 2017. Aceites de Oliva Vírgenes extra enriquecidos con nuevos antioxidantes procedentes de microalgas. Caracterización físico-química, colorimétrica y ensayos de estabilidad (Tesis doctoral). Universidad de Jaén.
Limón P, Malheiro R, Casal S, Acién-Fernández FG, Fernández-Sevilla JM, Rodrigues N, Cruz R, Bermejo R, Pereira JA. 2015. Improvement of stability and carotenoids fraction of virgin olive oils by addition of microalgae Scenedesmus almeriensis extracts. Food Chem. 175, 203-211.
Luna G, Morales MT, Aparicio R. 2006. Changes induced by UV radiation during virgin olive oil storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 4790-4794.
Malheiro R, Rodrigues N, Manzke G, Bento A, Pereira JA, Casal S. 2013. The use of olive leaves and tea extracts as effective antioxidants against the oxidation of soybean oil under microwave heating. Ind. Crops Prod. 44, 37-43.
Martínez JA, Melgosa M, Pérez MM, Hita E, Negueruela AI. 2001. Visual and instrumental color evaluation in red wines. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 7, 439-444.
Meléndez-Martínez A.J. 2019. An overview of carotenoids, apocarotenoids and vitamin A in agro-food, nutrition, health and disease. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 63, 1-11.
Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Mandić AI, Bantis F, Böhm V, Borge GIA, Brnčić M, Bysted A, Cano MP, Dias MG, Elgersma A, Fikselová M, García-Alonso J, Giuffrida D, Gonçalves VSS, Hornero-Méndez D, Kljak K, Lavelli V, Manganaris GA, Mapelli-Brahm P, Marounek M, Olmedilla-Alonso B, Periago-Castón MJ, Pintea A, Sheehan JJ, Tumbas Šaponjac V, Valšíková-Frey M, Meulebroek LV, O’Brien N. 2020. A comprehensive review on carotenoids in foods and feeds: status quo, applications, patents, and research needs. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 0, 1-51.
Melgosa M, Hita E, Romero J, Jiménez del Barco L. 1992. Some classical color differences calculated with new formulas. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1247-1253.
Montoya T, Sato T, Kitaguchi S, Bermejo R, Limón PM, Gómez-Robledo L, Melgosa M, 2018. Colour emotions of Japanese subjects for antioxidant-enriched virgin olive oils. Proc. of the International Colour Association Conference (AIC 2018), pp. 653-657. Lisbon.
Moyano MJ, Melgosa M, Alba J, Hita E, Heredia FJ. 1999. Reliability of the bromthymol blue method for color in virgin olive oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 687-692.
Murillo-Cruz MC, Chova M, Bermejo-Román R. 2021a. Effect of adding fungal β-carotene to picual extra virgin olive oils on their physical and chemical properties. J. Food Process. Preserv. 45, 1-10.
Murillo-Cruz MC, García-Ruíz AB, Chova-Martínez M, Bermejo-Román R. 2021b. Improvement of Physico-chemical Properties of Arbequina Extra Virgin Olive Oil Enriched with β-Carotene from Fungi. J. Oleo Sci. 70, 459-469.
Nogueira-de-Almeida CA, de Castro GA. 2018. Effects of heat treatment by immersion in household conditions on olive oil as compared to other culinary oils: A descriptive study. Int. J. Food Stud. 7, 89-99.
Ozawa Y, Sasaki M, Takahashi N, Kamoshita M, Miyake S, Tsubota K. 2012. Neuroprotective Effects of Lutein in the Retina. Curr. Pharm. Des. 18, 51-56.
Peñalvo GC, Robledo VR, Callado CSC, Santander-Ortega M., Castro-Vázquez L, Victoria Lozano M, Arroyo-Jiménez MM. 2016. Improving green enrichment of virgin olive oil by oregano. Effects on antioxidants. Food Chem. 197, 509-515.
Rodriguez-Concepcion M, Avalos J, Bonet ML, Boronat A, Gomez-Gomez L, Hornero-Mendez D, Limon MC, Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Olmedilla-Alonso B, Palou A, Ribot J, Rodrigo MJ, Zacarias L, Zhu C. 2018. A global perspective on carotenoids: Metabolism, biotechnology, and benefits for nutrition and health. Prog. Lipid Res. 70, 62-93.
Salmerón JF, Gómez-Robledo L, Carvajal MÁ, Huertas R, Moyano MJ, Gordillo B, Palma AJ, Heredia FJ, Melgosa M. 2012. Measuring the colour of virgin olive oils in a new colour scale using a low-cost portable electronic device. J. Food Eng. 111, 247-254.
Syamila M, Gedi MA, Briars R, Ayed C, Gray DA. 2019. Effect of temperature, oxygen and light on the degradation of β-carotene, lutein and α-tocopherol in spray-dried spinach juice powder during storage. Food Chem. 284, 188-197.
Turner T, Burri BJ, Jamil KM, Jamil M. 2013. The effects of daily consumption of β-cryptoxanthin-rich tangerines and β-carotene-rich sweet potatoes on vitamin A and carotenoid concentrations in plasma and breast milk of Bangladeshi women with low vitamin A status in a randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 98, 1200-1208.
Van Hoang D, Pham NM, Lee AH, Tran DN, Binns CW. 2018. Dietary carotenoid intakes and prostate cancer risk: A case-control study from Vietnam. Nutrients 10, 1-11.
Yu L, Wang Y, Wu G, Jin J, Jin Q, Wang X. 2020. Quality and Composition of Virgin Olive Oils from Indigenous and European Cultivars Grown in China. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 97, 341-353.
World Health Organization. 2014. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption around the world. Available at: <http://www.who.int//dietphysicalactivity/fruit/en/> Accessed 23.02.2014.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación
Grant numbers PID2019-107816GB-I00