Biochemical appraisal of the underutilized Hura crepitans seed oil: functional and inflammatory responses in albino rats
Keywords:Arachis hypogea, Hura crepitans, Inflammation, Organ function, Seed oil
Hura crepitans seed oil (HCSO) remains under-utilized, largely due to the scarcity in data regarding its biochemical properties. To investigate the functional and pro-inflammatory responses to HCSO, twenty-four male rats were grouped into four and received compounded diets containing 5%-HCSO; 10%-HCSO; 15%-HCSO; and 15%-AHO (as control) for eight weeks. The functional responses and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors were appraised. The organ function biomarkers in rats fed with HCSO-supplemented diets were statistically similar to those of control rats, except for uric acid and creatine levels, which were significantly lower in the HCSO-fed groups, and the urea level, which was elevated in all HCSO-fed groups. Also, HCSO significantly downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and their receptors (IL-1R and IL-6R), when compared to the control group. Our results highlight the reno- and cardio-protective potentials of HCSO, as well as its anti-inflammatory potentials.
Abdulkadir MN, Amoo IA and Adesina AO. 2013. Chemical composition of Hura crepitans seeds and antimicrobial activities of its oil. Int. J. Sci. Res. 2 (3), 440-445. https://www.ijsr.net/search_index_results_paperid.php?id=IJSRON2013625
Adewuyi A, Awolade PO and Oderinde RA. 2014. Hura crepitans seed oil: an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. J. Fuels, 2014, 464590. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/464590
Adindu EA, Elekwa I and Ogwo JI. 2015. Phytochemical comparative screening of aqueous extracts of the leaves, stem barks, and roots of Hura crepitans (L) using GC-FID. Nat. Sc. 13 (12), 112-119.
Akhtar S, Khalid N, Ahmed I, Shahzad A and Suleria HAR. 2014. Physicochemical characteristics, functional properties, and nutritional benefits of peanut oil: a review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 54 (12), 1562-1575. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.644353 PMid:24580558
Anyasor GN, Ogunwenmo KO, Oyelana OA, Ajayi D and Dangana J. 2009. Chemical analyses of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) oil. Pak. J. Nutr. 8 (3), 269-272. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2009.269.272
Arya SS, Salve AR and Chauhan S. 2016. Peanuts as functional food: a review. J. Food Sci. Tech. 53 (1), 31-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-2007-9 PMid:26787930 PMCid:PMC4711439
Avoseh ON, Ogunbajo LO, Ogunwande IA, Ogundajo AL and Lawal OA. 2018. Anti-inflammatory activity of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Hura crepitans L. Eur J Med Plants 24, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2018/41439
Brühl, L. 1997. Official methods and recommended practices of the American oil chemist's society, physical and chemical characteristics of oils, fats and waxes, section I. Ed. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 99 (5), 197-197. https://doi.org/10.1002/lipi.19970990510
Burns CM, Wortmann RL. 2011. Gout therapeutics: new drugs for an old disease. Lancet 377 (9760), 165-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60665-4
Byass P. 2014. The global burden of liver disease: a challenge for methods and for public health. BMC Med. 12 (1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-014-0159-5 PMid:25286285 PMCid:PMC4168048
Cheesbrough M. 2006. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543470 PMCid:PMC2870630
Chen L, Deng H, Cui H, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, Li Y, Wang X, Zhao L. 2018. Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs. Oncotarget 9 (6), 7204-7218. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.23208 PMid:29467962 PMCid:PMC5805548
David OM, Ojo OO, Olumekun VO and Famurewa O. 2014. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Hura crepitans (L.), Monodora myristica (Gaertn Dunal) and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich) seeds. Brit. J. Appl. Sci. Tech. 4 (23), 3332-3341. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJAST/2014/5088
Esonu BO, Ozeudu E, Emenalom OO, Nnaji C and Onyeikegbulem IK. 2014. Nutritional value of sandbox (Hura crepitans) seed meal for broiler finisher birds. J. Nat. Sci. Res. 4 (23), 95-99. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JNSR/article/view/18523/18794
Ezeh IE, Umoren SA, Essien, EE and Udoh AP. 2012. Studies on the utilization of Hura crepitans L. seed oil in the preparation of alkyd resins. Ind. Crops Prod. 36 (1), 94-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.08.013
Fowomola MA, Akindahunsi AA. 2007. Nutritional quality of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans Linn.). J. Med. Food 10 (1), 159-164. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2005.062 PMid:17472481
Gaze DC. 2012. The Cardiovascular System: Physiology, Diagnostics and Clinical Implications. BoD-Books on Demand, Norderstedt, Germany. https://doi.org/10.5772/2266
Gheshlaghi F. 2012. Toxic renal injury at a glance. J. Renal Inj. Prev. 1 (1), 15-16.
Gordon MH. 2004. Factors affecting lipid oxidation, in Steele R (Ed.) Understanding and Measuring the Shelf-Life of Food, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp.128-141. https://doi.org/10.1533/9781855739024.1.128
Gunstone F. 2009. Oils and Fats in the Food Industry, vol. 6. John Wiley & Sons. Hoboken, New Jersey. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444302424 PMid:18801287 PMCid:PMC2529209
Hao W, Zhu H, Chen J, Kwek E, He Z, Liu J, Ma N, Ma KY, Chen ZY. 2020. Wild melon seed oil reduces plasma cholesterol and modulates gut microbiota in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 68 (7), 2071-2081. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b07302 PMid:31984735
Higgins C. 2016. Urea and the clinical value of measuring blood urea concentration. Acutecaretesting Org. 1-6. https://acutecaretesting.org/en/articles/urea-and-the-clinical-value-of-measuring-blood-urea-concentration.
Hu EC, He JG, Liu ZH, Ni XH, Zheng YG, Gu Q, Zhao ZH, Xiong CM. 2015. High levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase correlate with the severity and mortality of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Exp. Ther. Med. 9 (6), 2109-2113. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2015.2376 PMid:26136943 PMCid:PMC4473598
Igwenyi IO, Agu EA, Awoke JN, Edwin N, Famurewa AC, Obasi NA, Obasi DC. 2017. Antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effect of Hura crepitans seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Allied Sci. 6 (9), 1771-1780. https://ijbpas.com/pdf/2017/September/1504287339MS%20IJBPAS%202017%204257.pdf.
Kardash E and Tur'yan YI. 2005. Acid value determination in vegetable oils by indirect titration in aqueous-alcohol media. Croatica Chem. Acta. 78 (1), 99-103 https://hrcak.srce.hr/2797.
Kanwal A, Abida L, Sana A, Ahlam S. 2018. A systematic review on the prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and treatment of gout (2007-2018). GSC Biol. Pharm. Sci. 5 (1), 50-55. https://doi.org/10.30574/gscbps.2018.5.1.0077
Lei L, Chen J, Liu Y, Wang L, Zhao G and Chen ZY. 2018. Dietary wheat bran oil is equally as effective as rice bran oil in reducing plasma cholesterol. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 66, 2765−2774. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b06093 PMid:29502409
Moghadam-Kia S, Oddis CV and Aggarwal R. 2016. Approach to asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation. Clev. Clin. J. Med. 83 (1), 37-42. https://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.83a.14120 PMid:26760521 PMCid:PMC4871266
Percie du Sert N, Ahluwalia A, Alam S, Avey MT, Baker M, Browne WJ, Clark A, Cuthill IC, Dirnagl U, Emerson M, Garner P. 2020. Reporting animal research: Explanation and elaboration for the ARRIVE guidelines 2.0. PLoS Biol. 18 (7), e3000411. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000411 PMid:32663221 PMCid:PMC7360025
Niemelä O and Alatalo P. 2010. Biomarkers of alcohol consumption and related liver disease. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Inv 70 (5), 305-312. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365513.2010.486442 PMid:20470213
Oniya OO, Oyelade JO, Ogunkunle O, Idowu DO. 2017. Optimization of solvent extraction of oil from sandbox kernels (Hura crepitans L.) by a response surface method. Energy and Policy Res. 4 (1), 36-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/23815639.2017.1324332
Owojuyigbe OS, Firempong CK, Larbie C, Komlaga G and Emikpe BO. 2020. Hepatoprotective potential of Hura crepitans L.: a review of ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies. J. Complement. Altern. Med. Res. 9 (2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i230136
Oyekunle JAO and Omode AA. 2008. Chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the lipid fractions of selected Nigerian indigenous oilseeds. Int. J. Food Prop. 11 (2), 273-281. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942910701302598
Pachuau L, Devi CM, Goswami A, Sahu S, Dutta RS. 2019. Seed oils as a source of natural bio-active compounds, in: Akhtar M, Swamy M, Sinniah U (Eds.) Natural Bio-active Compounds, Springer, Singapore, pp. 209-235. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-7154-7_8
Rotimi OA, Rotimi SO, Duru CU, Ebebeinwe OJ, Abiodun AO, Oyeniyi BO, Faduyile FA. 2017. Acute aflatoxin B1-Induced hepatotoxicity alters gene expression and disrupts lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in rats. Toxicol. Rep. 4, 408-414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2017.07.006 PMid:28959666 PMCid:PMC5615163
Shaterzadeh-Yazdi H, Noorbakhsh MF, Samarghandian S and Farkhondeh T. 2018. An overview on renoprotective effects of thymoquinone. Kidney Dis. 4 (2), 74-82. https://doi.org/10.1159/000486829 PMid:29998122 PMCid:PMC6029230
Oyeleke GO, Olayiwola OA, Latona DF. 2012. Chemical Examination Of Sandbox (Hura Crepitans) Seed: Proximate, Elemental And Fatty Acid Profile. Magnesium 112, 0-1. https://doi.org/10.9790/5736-0121013
WHO. World Health Organization. 2020. The Top 10 Causes of Death. Available: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death.
Zhang L, Virgous C, Si H. 2019. Synergistic anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of combined phytochemicals. J. Nutr. Biochem. 69, 19-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.03.009 PMid:31048206
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.