Grasas y Aceites, Vol 70, No 1 (2019)

Effect of drying on the chemical composition of Çakıldak (cv) hazelnuts during storage


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0693181

A. Turan
Giresun University, Technical Sciences Vocational School, Hazelnut Expertise Programme, Turkey
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2961-6605

Abstract


The hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is one of the most popular tree nuts in the world. The proper selection of drying methods is necessary to prevent oil oxidation which will influence the overall nut quality during storage. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sun drying (SD) and artificial dryingied (AD) on the chemical traits of hazelnuts during long–term storage. Protein, lipid and moisture contents, water activity, fatty acid composition, sum of fatty acids, and oil oxidation properties were determined over 24 months’ storage (2015–2017) at 20–25 °C and 70–90% relative humidity. The results showed that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was the main fatty acid group (81.55–83.38%) followed by polyunsaturated (PUFA; 10.39–11.57%) and saturated fatty acids (SFA; 5.75–6.60%). The samples dried by AD had more SFA (5.86%) and MUFA (83.11%) than the SD samples. At the end of storage, the lowest free fatty acid, and peroxide value (0.52%–1.45 meqO2·kg-1, respectively), and the highest oleic/linoleic acidity ratio (7.76) were found from AD. Therefore, AD appears to be more promising for hazelnut drying.

Keywords


Drying; Fatty acid composition; Hazelnut; Oil oxidation; Storage; Sun–dried

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Ajith S, Pramod S, Kumari CP, Potty VP. 2015. Effect of storage temperatures and humidity on proximate composition, peroxide value and iodine of raw cashew nuts. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52, 4631–4636. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1476-6 PMid:26139936 PMCid:PMC4486559

Ala?alvar C, Pelvan E, Topal B. 2010. Effect of roasting oil and fatty acid composition of Turkish hazelnut varieties (Corylus avellana L.). Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 61, 630–642.

Amaral JS, Casal S, Citová I, Santos A, Seabra RM, Oliveira BPP. 2006. Characterization of several hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars based in chemical, fatty acid and sterol composition. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 222, 274–280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-005-0068-0

AOAC. 1990a. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil. Chemist's Society, 5th ed. American Oil Chemist Society, USA

AOAC. 1990b. Oils and Fats, 15th ed. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC USA pp, 485–518

AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International 17th ed. 40, 1–3

Belviso S, Bell BD, Giacosa S, Bertolino M, Ghirardello D, Giordano M, Rolle L, Gerbi V, Zeppa G. 2017. Chemical, mechanical and sensory monitoring of hot air and infrared roasted hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) during nine months of storage. Food Chem. 217, 398–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.103

Delgado T, Pereira JA, Ramalhosa E, Casal S. 2016. Effect of hot air convective drying on the fatty acid and vitamin E composition of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) slices. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 242, 1299–1306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-015-2633-5

Delgado T, Pereira JA, Ramalhosa E, Casal S. 2017. Comparison of different drying methods on the chemical and sensory properties of chestnut (Castanea sativa M.) slices. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 243, 1957–1971. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-017-2902-6

Ficarra A, Lo Fiego DP, Minelli G, Antonelli A. 2010. Ultra fast analysis of subcutaneous pork fat. Food Chem. 121, 809–814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.01.003

Fu M, Qu Q, Yang X, Zhang X. 2016. Effect of intermittent oven drying on lipid oxidation, fatty acids composition and antioxidant activities of walnut. LWT–Food Science and Technol. 65, 1126-1132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.10.002

Ghirardello D, Contessa C, Valentini N, Zeppa G, Rolle R, Gerbi V, Botta R. 2013. Effect of storage condition on chemical and physical characteristics of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). Postharvest Biology and Technol. 81, 37–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.02.014

Janowicz M, Lenart A. 2018. The impact of high pressure and drying processing on internal scructure and quality of fruit. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 244, 1329–1340. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-018-3047-y

Juhaimi FA, Özcan MM, Uslu N, Ghafoor K. 2018. The effect of drying temperatures on antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents in citrus and oils. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 55, 190–197.

Kashaninejad M, Tabil LG, Mortazavi A, Safeordi A. 2003. Effect of drying methods on quality of pistachio nuts. Drying Technol. 21, 821–838. https://doi.org/10.1081/DRT-120021688

Kermani AM, Khashehchi M, Kouravand S, Sadeghi A. 2017. Effect of intermittent microwave drying on quality characteristics of pistachio nuts. Drying Technol. 35, 1108–1116. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2016.1232270

Koç Güler S, Bostan SZ, Con AZ. 2017. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical and sensory characteristics of natural hazelnut kernels. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 123, 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2016.08.007

Koyuncu MA, ?slam A, Küçük M. 2005. Fat and fatty acid composition of hazelnut kernels in vacuum packages during storage. Grasas Aceites 56, 263–266. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2005.v56.i4.91

Özdemir M, Yıldız M, Gürcan T?. 2002. Effect of artificial trying air temperature on stability of the major Turkish hazelnut variety Tombul. Gıda. 27, 35–39.

Özilgen S, 2014. Cooking as a Chemical Reaction: Culinary Science with experiments. CRC Press, USA. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17505 PMid:24945873

Qu Q, Yang X, Fu M, Chen Q, Zhang X, He Z, Qiao X. 2016. Effects of three conventional drying methods on the lipid oxidation, fatty acids composition, and antioxidant activities of walnut (Juglans regia L.). Drying Technol. 34, 822–829. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2015.1081931

Raisi M, Ghorbani M, Mahoonak AS, Kashani Nejad M. 2015. Effect of storage atmosphere and temperature on the oxidative stability of almond kernels during long-term storage. J. Stored Prod. Res. 62, 16–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2015.03.004

Turan A, ?slam A. 2016. Çakıldak fındık çe?idinde kurutma ortamları ve muhafaza süresine ba?lı olarak meydana gelen de?i?imler. Ordu Univ. J. Sci. Technol. 6, 272–285.

Turan A. 2017. Effect of drying methods on nut quality and storage of hazelnut. Ph. D. Thesis, Ordu.

Turan A, ?slam A. 2018. Effect of drying methods on some chemical characteristics of hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) during storage. J. Inst. Sci. Technol. 8, 11–19. https://doi.org/10.21597/jist.458541

Turan A. 2018. Effect of drying methods on fatty acid profile and oil oxidation of Hazelnut oil during storage. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 244, 2181–2190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-018-3128-y

Tüfekçi F, Karata? ?. 2018. Determination of geographical origin Turkish hazelnuts according to fatty acid composition. Food Sci. Nutr. 6, 557–562. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.595 PMid:29876106 PMCid:PMC5980350

Velasco J, Anderson ML, Skibsted LH. 2004. Evaluation of oxidative stability of vegetable oils by monitoring the tendency to radical formation. A comparison of electron spins resonance spectroscopy with the rancimat method and differential scanning calorimetry. Food Chem. 85, 623–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.07.020

WAA. 2004. Operating Manual Novasina. AW Sprint TH 500 Water Activity Analyzers.

Wang W, Jung J, McGorrin RJ, Traber MG, Leonard GC, Zhao Y. 2018. Investigation of drying conditions on bioactive compounds, lipid oxidation, and enzyme activity of Oregon hazelnuts (Corylus avellanaL.). LWT–Food Science and Technology 90, 526–534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.01.002




Copyright (c) 2019 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es