Grasas y Aceites, Vol 60, No 5 (2009)

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] kernel cake extracts obtained by sequential extraction

Ana Cristina Pinheiro do Prado
Department of Food Science and Technology, UFSC – Florianópolis – SC, Brazil

Analu Monalise Aragão
Department of Food Science and Technology, UFSC – Florianópolis – SC, Brazil

Roseane Fett
Department of Food Science and Technology, UFSC – Florianópolis – SC, Brazil

Jane Mara Block
Department of Food Science and Technology, UFSC – Florianópolis – SC, Brazil


The total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of different Pecan kernel cake extracts (ether, acetone, alcohol and distilled water) were estimated and their antioxidant activities were evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and ß-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Color variations of the Pecan kernel cake were determined through an instrumental analysis using the CIE Lab system. Significantly higher levels (p < 0.05) of total phenolics, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity measured through the ABTS and DPPH (30 min and 24 h) systems were observed for the acetone extract (16.4 mg GAE/g; 31.2 mg CE/g; 235.3 μmol TEAC/g and 68.6 and 100.3 mg TEAC/g, respectively). The oxidation inhibition percentage in the ß-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 37.9 to 93.1%, with the acetone extract at 300 ppm showing significantly superior results. The samples with the greatest tendency to show red tones presented the highest levels of condensed tannins.


Antioxidant activity; Carya illinoinensis; Oxidation; Pecan kernel cake; Phenolic compounds

Full Text:



AOAC 2005. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis of the AOAC. 18th. Ed. AOAC, Arlington, VA.

Balasundram N, Sundram K, Samman S. 2006. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chemistry 99, 191-203. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.042

Beal BH. 2006. Atividade antioxidante e identificação dos ácidos fenólicos do gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) 2006. 87 p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciência dos Alimentos) – Centro de Ciencias Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis.

Bramley PM, Elmadfa I, Kafatos A, Kelly FJ, Manios Y, Roxborough HE, Schuch W, Sheehy PJA, Wagner KH. Rewiew Vitamin E. 2000. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, 913-938. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:7<913::AID-JSFA600>3.0.CO;2-3

Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier AE, Berset C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity, Lebensm.-Wiss. u.- Technol 28, 25-30.

Budini R, Tonelli D, Girotti S. 1980. Analysis of total phenols using the Prussian blue method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 28, 1236-1238. doi:10.1021/jf60232a056

Cuvelier ME, Bondet V, Berset C. 2000. Behavior of phenolic antioxidants in a partitioned medium: structure-activity relationship. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’Society 77, 819-823. doi:10.1007/s11746-000-0131-4

Duarte-Almeida JM, Santos RJ, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM. 2006. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante utilizando sistema _-caroteno / ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais livres DPPH. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment. 26, 446-452.

Frankel EN, Huang S-W, Kanner J, German JB. 1994. Interfacial phenomena in the evaluation of antioxidants: Bulk oils vs emulsions. Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry 42, 1054-1059. doi:10.1021/jf00041a001

Heaton EK, Worthington RE, Shewfelt AL. 1975. Pecan nut quality. Effect of time of harveston composition, sensory and quality characteristics. Journal Food Science 40, 1260. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1975.tb01067.x

Kim DO, Lee KW, Lee HJ, Lee CY. 2002. Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolics phytochemicals. Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry 50, 3713-3717. doi:10.1021/jf020071c PMid:12059148

Kornsteiner M, Wagner KH, Elmadfa I. 2006. Tocopherols and total phenolics in 10 different nut types. Food Chemistry 98, 381-387. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.033

Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, Coval SM, Binkoski AE, Hilpert KF, Griel AE, Etherton TD. 2002. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The American Journal of Medicine 113, 71-88. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(01)00995-0

Kris-Etherton PM, Yu-Poth S, Sabaté J, Ratcliffe HE, Zhao G, Etherton TD. 1999. Nuts and their bioactive constituents: effects on serum lipids and other factors that affect disease risk. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 504-511.

Kyoung Chun OK, Kim D. 2004. Consideration on equivalent chemicals in total phenolic assay of chlorogenic acid-rich plums. Food Research International 37, 337-342. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2004.02.001

Marco GJ. 1968. A rapid method for evaluation of antioxidants. Journal of the American Oil Chemist’s Society 45, 494-598. doi:10.1007/BF02668958

Miller HE. 1971. A simplified method for the evaluation of antioxidants. Journal of the American Oil Chemist’s Society 48, 91. doi:10.1007/BF02635693

Nogala-Kalucka M, Korczak J, Dratwia M, Lampsrt- Szczapa E, Siger A, Buchowski M. 2005. Changes in antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of rosemary extract and tocopherols in isolated rapeseed oil triacylgliycerols during accelerated tests. Food Chemistry 93, 227–235. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.021

Oro T, Ogliari PJ, Amboni RDMC, Barrera-Arellano D, Block JM. 2008. Evaluación de la calidad durante el almacenamiento de nueces Pecán [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] acondicionadas en diferentes envases. Grasas y Aceites 59, 132-138. doi:10.3989/gya.2008.v59.i2.501

Pokorny´ J, Parkányiová J. 2005. Lipids with antioxidant properties. Healthful Lipids. AOCS Press.

Porter WL. 1993. Paradoxical Behavior of antioxidants in food and biological systens. Toxicology and Industrial Health 09, 93-122.

Prat, DE. 1990. Natural antioxidants not exploited commercially, In: Prat, D.E (Ed). Food antioxidants, Elsevier Apllied Science, London, p. 171-192.

Price ML, Van Scoyoc S, Butler LG. 1978. A critical evaluation of the vanillin reaction as an assay for tannin in sorghum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 26, 1214-1218. doi:10.1021/jf60219a031

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cátion decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 26, 1231-1237. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3 PMid:10381194

Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Pagança G. 1997. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends in Plant Science 2, 152-159. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(97)01018-2

Robinson T. 1975. The organic constituents of higher plants. Their chemistry and interrelationships. 3rd ed. Cordus Press, North Amherst, Mass.

Santos-Buelga CE, Scalbert A. 2000. Proantocyanidins and tannin-like compounds-nature, occurrence dietary intake and effects on nutrition and health. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, 1094-1117. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:7<1094::AID-JSFA569>3.0.CO;2-1

Scalbert A, Williamson G. 2000. Dietary intake and bioavail-abbility of polyphenols. Journal of Nutrition 130 (Suppl. 8S) 2073S-2085S.

Senter SD, Forbus JR WR. 1978. Leucoanthocyanidin oxidation in pecan kernels: relation to discoloration and kernel quality. Journal of Food Science 43, 128-134. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1978.tb09751.x

Shahidi F, Naczk M. 2004. Cereal, Legumes and Nuts. Phenolics in Food and Nutraceutical. Boca Raton, CRC Press LLC.

Shahidi F, Naczk M. 1995. Food phenolics: souces, chemistry, effects and applications. Lancaster: Technomic Publishing 281-319.

Soares SE. 2002. Ácidos Fenólicos como antioxidantes. Revista de Nutrição 15 (1) 71- 81. doi:10.1590/S1415-52732002000100008

Swink JW. 1996. Pecans as a “young” ingredient. Food Tech Europe 3, 75-76.

Tepe B. 2008. Antioxidant potentials and rosmarinic acid levels of the methanolic extracts of Salvia virgata (Jacq), Salvia staminea (Montbret & Aucher ex Bentham) and Salvia verbenacea (L.) from Turkey. Bioresource Technology 99, 1584-1588. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.04.008 PMid:17531471

Thompson TE, Grauke LJ, Young EF JR. 1996. Pecan Kernel color: standars using the munsell color notation system. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 121, 548–553.

Venkatachalam M. 2004. Chemical composition of select pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] varieties and antigenic stability of pecan proteins. 2004. 90p. (Dissertation) - College of Human Sciences, The Florida State University.

Villarreal-Lozoya JE, Lombardini L, Cisneros-Zevallos. 2007. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant capacity of different pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars. Food Chemistry 102, 1241-1249. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.024

Wakeling LT, Mason RL, D’Arcy BR, Caffin N.A. 2001. Composition of pecan cultivars Wichita and Western Schley [Caraya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch] grown in Australia. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, 1277-1281. doi:10.1021/jf000797d PMid:11312850

Wanasundara PKPD, Shahidi F. 2005. Antioxidants: Science, Technology, and Applications. Shahidi F. Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products: Chemistry, Properties and Health Effects. 6.ed., v.1, EUA, Wiley – interscience, 2005.

Wilkinson J. 2000. Efffect of ginger tea on the fetal development of Sprague-Dawley rats. Reproductive Toxicology 14, 507-512. doi:10.1016/S0890-6238(00)00106-4 PMid:11099876

Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz DB, Gebhardt SE, Prior RL. 2004. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, 4026-4037. doi:10.1021/jf049696w PMid:15186133

Copyright (c) 2009 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support