Effect of slaughtering conditions on lipid damage of chilled farmed turbot (Psetta maxima) muscle


  • Hugo Lago Food Technology Department, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC)
  • Javier Pena Food Technology Department, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC)
  • Santiago P. Aubourg Food Technology Department, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC)




Farming, Lipid damage, Ozone, Slaughtering, Slurry ice, Turbot


The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of different kinds of icing systems employed for the slaughtering and post-mortem storage of cultured turbot (Psetta maxima) on lipid damage (hydrolysis and oxidation). Slurry ice (SI) alone or in presence of ozone (OSI) was applied and compared to the traditional flake ice (FI) treatment. K value and trimethylamine (TMA) formation were also assessed. Some negative effects of ozone presence could be observed on primary and secondary lipid oxidation development; however, oxidation values reached by individuals kept under OSI condition could not be considered high and did not lead to polyunsaturated fatty acid content losses; while ozone presence provided a slowing down of TMA formation. When compared to FI conditions, the employment of SI was found useful to inhibit quality losses (K value and TMA formation), while no differences in lipid hydrolysis or oxidation development could be observed.


Download data is not yet available.


Ackman R. 1989. Fatty acids in Ackman R (Ed.) Marine Biogenic Lipids, Fats and Oils, Vol. 1, pp. 103-137. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl, USA.

Álvarez V, Feás X, Barros-Velázquez J, Aubourg S. 2009. Quality changes of farmed blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo) subjected to slaughtering and storage under flow ice and ozonised flow ice. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44, 1561-1571. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01836.x

AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemistry, 15th ed., vol. 2, p. 870. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.

Aubourg S, Álvarez V, Pena J. 2010. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) slaughtered and chilled under different icing condition. Grasas y Aceites 61, 183-190. doi:10.3989/gya.108909

Aubourg S, Losada V, Prego R. 2007. Distribution of lipids and trace minerals in different muscle sites of farmed and wild turbot (Psetta maxima). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 42, 1456-1464.

Aubourg S, Medina I, Gallardo J. 1998. Quality assessment of blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) during chilled storage by monitoring lipid damages. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 3662-3666. doi:10.1021/jf980362e

Aubourg S, Medina I, Pérez-Martín R. 1996. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in tuna phospholipids: distribution in the sn-2 location and changes during cooking. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 585-589. doi:10.1021/jf950234f

Aubourg S, Piñeiro C, Gallardo J, Barros-Velázquez J. 2005. Biochemical changes and quality loss during chilled storage of farmed turbot (Psetta maxima). Food Chem. 90, 445-452. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.008

Aubourg S. 1999. Recent advances in assessment of marine lipid oxidation by using fluorescence. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 409-419. doi:10.1007/s11746-999-0018-2

Bligh E, Dyer W. 1959. A rapid method of total extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37, 911–917. PMid:13671378

Chaouqy NE, Gallardo JM, El Marrakchi A, Aubourg S. 2008. Lipid damage development in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) muscle during storage under refrigerated conditions. Grasas y Aceites 59, 309-315.

Chapman R, McKay J. 1949. The estimation of peroxides in fats and oils by the ferric thiocyanate method. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 26, 360-363. doi:10.1007/BF02651444

Christie W. 2003. Lipid Analysis, 3rd edition, p. 37. The Oily Press, Bridgwater, UK.

Duran A, Erdemli U, Karakaya M, Yilmaz M. 2008. Effects of slaughter methods on physical, biochemical and microbiological quality of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and mirror carp Cyprinus carpio filleted in pre-, in- or post-rigor periods. Fish. Sci. 74, 1146-1156. doi:10.1111/j.1444-2906.2008.01634.x

FAO. 2007. Fishery statistics. Aquaculture production. In Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Yearbook 2005, Vol. 100/2, p. 78, Rome, Italy.

Gregory N. 2005. Review: Recent concerns about stunning and slaughter. Meat Sci. 70, 481-491. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.06.026

Huidobro A, Mendes R, Nunes ML. 2001. Slaughtering of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in liquid ice: influence on fish quality. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 213, 267-272. doi:10.1007/s002170100378

Huidobro A, Montero P, Tejada M, Jiménez-Colmenero F, Borderías J. 1990. Changes in protein function of sardines stored in ice with and without added salt. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch. 190, 195-198. doi:10.1007/BF01192965

Hwang K, Regenstein J. 1995. Hydrolysis and oxidation of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) mince lipids with NaOCl and NaF treatments. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 4, 19-30. doi:10.1300/J030v04n04_03

Kanner J, Harel S, Jaffe R. 1991. Lipid peroxidation of muscle food as affected by sodium chloride. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39, 1017-1021. doi:10.1021/jf00006a002

Kim J, Yousef A, Dave S. 1999. Application of ozone for enhancing the microbiological safety and quality of foods: A review. J. Food Prot. 62, 1071-1087. PMid:10492485

Losada V, Barros-Velázquez J, Gallardo J, Aubourg, S. 2004. Effect of advanced chilling methods on lipid damage during sardine (Sardina pilchardus) storage. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 106, 844-850. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200400991

Losada V, Piñeiro C, Barros-Velázquez J, Aubourg S. 2005. Inhibition of chemical changes related to freshness loss during storage of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in slurry ice. Food Chem. 93, 619-625. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.041

Lowry R, Tinsley I. 1976. Rapid colorimetric determination of free fatty acids. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 53, 470-472. doi:10.1007/BF02636814 PMid:956589

Maruf F, Ledward D, Neale R, Poultier R. 1990. Chemical and nutritional quality of Indonesian dried-salted mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 25, 66-77.

Medina I, Gallardo JM, Aubourg S. 2009. Quality preservation in chilled and frozen fish products by employment of slurry ice and natural antioxidants. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44, 1467-1479. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02016.x

Morzel M, Sohier D, Van de Vis H. 2003. Evaluation of slaughtering methods for turbot with respect to animals welfare and flesh quality. J. Sci. Food Agric. 83, 19-28. doi:10.1002/jsfa.1253

Olafsdóttir G, Martinsdóttir E, Oehlenschläger J, Dalgaard P, Jensen B, Undeland I, Mackie I, Henehan G, Nielsen J, Nilsen H. 1997. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 8, 258-265. doi:10.1016/S0924-2244(97)01049-2

Ortiz J, Palma Ó, González N, Aubourg S. 2008. Lipid damage in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after slaughtering and chilled storage. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 110, 1127-1135. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200800131

Özogul Y, Özogul F, Kuley E, Serhat Özkutuk A, Gökbulut C, Köse S. 2006. Biochemical, sensory and microbiological attributes of wild turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), from the Black Sea, during chilled storage. Food Chem. 99, 752-758. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.053

Özogul Y, Özogul F. 2004. Effects of slaughtering methods on sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stored in ice and MAP. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 219, 211-216.

Pearson A, Love J, Shorland B. 1977. Warmed over flavor in meat, poultry and fish. Adv. Food Res. 23, 2-61.

Piclet G. 1987. Le poisson aliment. Composition et intérêt nutritionnel. Cah. Nutr. Diét. 22, 317-335.

Rodríguez Ó, Barros-Velázquez J, Piñerio C, Gallardo J, Aubourg S. 2006. Effects of storage in slurry ice on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality and on the shelf life of farmed turbot (Psetta maxima). Food Chem. 95, 270-278. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.11.054

Roth B, Imsland A, Gunnarsson S, Foss A, Schelvis-Smit R. 2007. Slaughter quality and rigor contraction in farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); a comparison between different stunning methods. Aquaculture 272, 754-761. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.09.012

Ruff N, Fitzgerald R, Cross T, Kerry J. 2002. Comparative composition and shelf-life of fillets of wild and cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Aquac. Int. 10, 241-256. doi:10.1023/A:1022175200191

Sérot L, Gandemer G, Demaimay M. 1998. Lipid and fatty acid compositions of muscle from farmed and wild adult turbot. Aquac. Int. 6, 331-343. doi:10.1023/A:1009284905854

Sheehan E, Sheehy P, Morrisey P, Fitzgerald R. 1994. Compositional analysis on wild and farmed turbot and fish feeds in Ireland in Lavens P, Remmerswaal R (Eds.) Turbot culture: Problems and prospects,pp. 302-311. European Aquaculture Society, Special Publication No. 22, Gent, Belgium.

Shewfelt R. 1981. Fish muscle lipolysis. A review. J. Food Biochem. 5, 79-100. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4514.1981.tb00663.x

Smith J, Hardy R, McDonald I, Templeton J. 1980. The storage of herring (Clupea harengus) in ice, refrigerated sea water and at ambient temperature. Chemical and sensory assessment. J. Sci. Food Agric. 31, 375-385. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740310408

Srikar L, Khuntia B, Reddy G, Srinivasa B. 1993. Influence of storage temperature on the quality of salted mackerel (Rastrelliger kangurta) and pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus). J. Sci. Food Agric. 63, 319-322. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740630309

Tozawa H, Erokibara K, Amano K. 1971. Proposed modification of Dyer’s method for trimethylamine determination in codfish in Kreuzer R. (Ed.) Fish Inspection and Quality Control, pp. 187-190. Fishing News Books Ltd., London, UK.

Vyncke W. 1970. Direct determination of the thiobarbituric acid value in trichloracetic acid extracts of fish as a measure of oxidative rancidity. Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 72, 1084-1087. doi:10.1002/lipi.19700721218

Whittle K, Hardy R, Hobbs G. 1990. Chilled fish and fishery products in Gormley T. (Ed.) Chilled foods: The state of the art, pp. 87-116. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, USA.

Yamada M, Fukusako S, Kawanami T. 2002. Performance analysis on the liquid-ice thermal storage system for optimum operation. Int. J. Refrig. 25, 267-277. doi:10.1016/S0140-7007(01)00088-3

Yildiz M, Sener E, Timur M. 2008. Effect of differences in diet and seasonal changes on the fatty acid composition in fillets from farmed and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 43, 853-858. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01526.x




How to Cite

Lago H, Pena J, Aubourg SP. Effect of slaughtering conditions on lipid damage of chilled farmed turbot (Psetta maxima) muscle. Grasas aceites [Internet]. 2010Sep.30 [cited 2024May22];61(3):312-20. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1029