Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils
Keywords:Differently processed rapeseed oils, Organic rapeseed oil, Lipids, Nut oils, Oxidative status, Rancimat, Specialty oils
Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O₂/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 °C (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, α- and γ- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 μg/g oil. The major sterols were β-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study.
AbidiS L. 2003. Tocol derived minor components in selected plant seed oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80, 327-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-003-0698-9
Azadmard-Damirchi S, Dutta P C. 2008. Stability of minor lipid components with emphasis on phytosterols during chemical interesterification of a blend of refined olive oil and palm stearin. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 13-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1170-1
Charrouf Z, Guillaume D. 2008. Argan oil: Occurrence, composition and impact on human health. Eu. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 110, 632-636. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700220
Codex Alimentarius. 2001.Codex standard for named vegetable oils (CODEX-STAN 210-1999), 8, 11-25.
Crews C, Hough P, Godward J, BreretonP, Lees M, Guiet S, Winkelmann W. 2005. Study of the main constituents of some authentic hazelnut oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 4843-4852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf047836w PMid:15941325
Crews C, Hough P, Godward J, Brereton P, Lees M, Guiet S, Winkelmann W. 2005. Study of the main constituents of some authentic walnut oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 4853-4860. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0478354 PMid:15941326
Crews C, Hough P, Brereton P, Godward J, Lees M, Guiet S, Winkelmann W. 2006. Quantitation of the main constituents of some authentic sesame seed oils of different origin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 6266-6270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0603578 PMid:16910718
Dubois V, Breton S, LinderM, Fanni J, Parmentier M. 2007. Fatty acid profiles of 80 vegetable oils with regard to their nutritional potential.Eur J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109, 710-732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700040
EscurriolV, Cofan M, Serra M, Bullo M, Basora J, Salas- Salvado J, Corella D, Zazpe I, Martinez-Gonzalez M A, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Estruch R, Ros E.2009. Serum sterol responses to increasing plant sterol intake from natural foods in the Mediterranean diet. Eu. J. Nutr. 48, 373-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-009-0024-z PMid:19412676
Falk J, Munné-Bosch S. 2010. Tocochromanol functions in plants: antioxidation and beyond. J. Exp. Bot. 61, 1549-1566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq030 PMid:20385544
Franke AA, Murphy SP, Lacey R, Custer LJ. 2007. Tocopherol and tocotrienollevels of foods consumed in Hawaii. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 769-778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0623844 PMid:17263473
Gutierrez F, Arnaud T, Albi M A. 1999. Influence of ecological cultivation on virgin olive oil quality. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 617-621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0012-8
Determination of peroxide value: Anhydrous milk fat.IDF Standard7A. 1991. International Dairy Federation. Brussels, Belgium.
Determination of the p-Anisidine Value, Method 2.504. 1987. IUPAC standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives (7th ed.), Oxford: Alden Press, Oxford, pp. 210-211.
Jung S, Maurer D, Johnsson L A. 2009. Factors affecting emulsion stability and quality of oil recovered from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans. Biores. Technol. 100, 5340-5347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.03.087 PMid:19570674
Kaijser A, Dutta P, Savage G. 2000. Oxidative stability and lipid composition of macadamia nuts grown in New Zealand. Food Chem. 71, 67-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00132-1
Khallouki F, Younos C, Soulimani R, Oster T, Charrouf Z, Spiegelhalder B, Bartsch H, Owen R W. 2003. Consumption of argan oil (Morocco) with its unique profile of fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic compounds should confer valuable cancer chemopreventive effects. Eur. J. Canc. Prev. 12, 67-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008469-200302000-00011 PMid:12548113
Kochhar S P. 2002. Sesame, rice-bran and flaxseed oils. In:GunstoneF. D. (Ed.), Vegetable oils in food technology, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, pp. 297-326.
Koski A, Psoimiadou E, Tsimidou M, Hopia H, Kefalas P, Wähälä K, Heinonen M. 2002. Oxidative stability of virgin olive oil and cold pressed rapeseed oil. Eur. Food Res.Technol. 214, 214-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-001-0479-5
Lairon D. 2010. Nutritional quality and safety of organic food. A review. Agron. Sust. Dev. 30,33-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/agro/2009019
Lu Q-Y, Zhang, Y, Wang Y, Wang D, Lee R-P, Gao K, Byrns R, Heber D. 2009. California Hass avocado: Profiling of carotenoids, tocopherol, fatty acid, and fat content during maturation and from different growing areas. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 10408-10413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf901839h PMid:19813713 PMCid:2796540
Maguire L S, O’Sullivan S M, Galvin K, O’Connor T P, O’Brien N M. 2004. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and macadamia nut.Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 55, 171-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480410001725175 PMid:15223592
Miraliakbari H, Shahidi F. 2008. Oxidative Stability of tree Nut Oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 4751-4759. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf8000982 PMid:18494484
Normén L, Frohlich J, Trautwein E. 2004. Role of plant sterols in cholesterol lowering. In: Dutta P C. (Ed.), Phytosterols as functional food components and nutraceuticals, Marcel Dekker, Inc.New York, pp. 243-315.
Parcerisa J, Richardson D G, Rafecas M, Codony R, Boatella J. 1998. Fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol content of some hazelnut varieties (Coryllus avellana L.) harvested in Oregon (USA). J. Chromatog. A. 805, 259-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00049-1
Pekkarinen S, Hopia A, Heinonen M. 1998. Effect of processing on the oxidative stability of low erucic acid turnip rapeseed (Brassica rapa) oil. Fett/Lipid. 100, 69-74.
Piironen V, Lindsey DG, Miettinen TA, Toivo J, Lampi AM. 2000. Plant sterols: biosynthesis, biological function and their importance to human nutrition. A review, J. Sci. Food Agric. 80, 939-966. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:7<939::AID-JSFA644>3.0.CO;2-C
Rubio M, Alvarez-Ortí M, Alvaruiz A, Fernández., Pardo J E. 2009. Characterization of oil obtained from grape seeds collected during berry development. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 2812-2815. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf803627t PMid:19256538
Savage GP, McNeil DL, Dutta P C. 1997.Lipid composition and oxidative stability of oils in hazelnuts (Corylusavellana L.) grown in New Zealand. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74, 755-759. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-997-0214-x
Savage G P, Dutta P C, McNeil D L. 1999. Fatty acid and tocopherolcontents and oxidative stability of walnut oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.76, 1059-1063.
Schauss A G. 2008.Tocotrienols: A review. In: Watson R R, Preedy V R. (Eds.), Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols, CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 3-12.
Schwartz H, Ollilainen V, Piironen V, Lampi A-M. 2008. Tocopherol, tocotrienol and plant sterol contents of vegetable oils and industrial fats. J. Food Compos. Anal. 21, 152-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2007.07.012
Tasan M, Gecgel U, Demirci M. 2011. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils. Grasas y Aceites. 62, 284-289 http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.102310
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.