Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats
Keywords:Avocado butter, Cocoa butter-Lard-Plant fats, Solidification behavior, Thermal analysis
A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana), cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L.), palm oil (Elaeis guinensis) and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia) are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions, and melting and solidification behaviors. Although plant fats are completely different from lard with respect to fatty acid and TAG compositions, they share some common thermal features with lard. Based on thermal analysis, lard and plant fats, except cocoa butter, are found to have thermal transitions in both low (< 0 °C) and high (> 0 °C) melting regions of their cooling and melting curves. According to pulse NMR data, mee fat and lard are found to display closely similar solidification profiles in the temperature range of 0-25 °C, while palm oil and lard are found to have similar solidification profiles in the temperature range between 25-40 °C. Hence, the thermo-physical property comparison between plant fats and lard may be useful to formulate a fat blend which simulates the thermal properties of lard.
AOAC. 2007. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington.
AOCS. 1999. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. 5th ed. American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign.
Marikkar JMN, Ghazali HM, Long K, Lai OM. 2003. Lard uptake and its detection in selected food products deep-fried in lard. Food Res. Intel. 36, 1047-1060. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2003.08.003
Marikkar JMN, Ghazali HM, Long K. 2010. Composition and thermal characteristics of Madhuca longifolia seed fat and its solid and liquid fractions. J. Oleo Sci. 59, 7-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.59.7 PMid :20032594
Marikkar JMN, Lai OM, Ghazali HM, Che Man YB, Peiris TSG, Lai OM. 2005. Distinguishing lard from other animal fats in admixtures of some vegetable oils using liquid chromatographic data coupled with multivariate data analysis. Food Chem. 91, 5-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.080
Marikkar JMN, Lai OM, Ghazali HM, Che Man YB. 2001. Detection of lard and randomised lard as adulterants in RBD palm oil by differential scanning calorimetry. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78, 1113-1119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-001-0398-5
Nurjuliana M, Che Man YB, Mat Hashim D. 2010. Analysis of lard’s aroma by an electric nose for rapid halal authentication. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88, 75-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1655-1
Ospina-E JC, Cruz-S A, Perez Alvarez JA, Fernández- López J. 2011. Development of combinations of chemically modified vegetable oils as porkbackfat substitutes in sausages formulation. Meat Sci.84, 491-497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.10.003 PMid :20374815
PORIM. 1995. PORIM test methods. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
Rashood KA, Shaaban RRA, Moety EMA, Rauf A. 1996. Compositional and thermal characterization of genuine and randomized lard: a comparative study. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73, 303-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02523423
Riaz MN, Chaudry MM. 2004. Halal Food Production. CRC Press, Florida.
Segall SD, Artz WE, Raslan DS, Ferraz VP, Takahashi JA. 2005. Analysis of triacylglycerol isomers in Malaysian cocoa butter using HPLC-mass spectroscopy. Food Res. Intel. 38, 167-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2004.09.008
Wikipedia. 2012. Lard. en.wikipedia.org/lard. Accessed on Jan 2012.
Yanty NAM, Marikkar JMN, Che Man YB, Long K. 2011a. Composition and thermal analysis of lard stearin and lard olein. J. Oleo Sci. 60, 333-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.60.333 PMid :21701095
Yanty NAM, Marikkar JMN, Long K. 2011b. Effect of varietal differences on composition and thermal characteristics of avocado oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88, 1997-2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-011-1877-x
Yanty NAM, Marikkar JMN, Che Man YB. 2012. Effect of fractional crystallization on composition and thermal characteristics of avocado (Persea americana) butter. J Therm Anal Calorim.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.