Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties
Keywords:Lard substitute, Microstructure, Polymorphic forms, Shortenings, Textural properties
A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD) in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF) with palm stearin (PS) in a 99:1 (w/w) ratio; avocado fat (Avo) with PS and cocoa butter (CB) in a 84:7:9 (w/w) ratio; palm oil (PO) with PS, soybean oil (SBO) and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w) ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure.
AOAC. 2007. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
AOCS. 2007. Official method and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 6th ed. American Oil Chemists' Society, Illinois.
Buldo P, Wiking L. 2012. The role of mixing temperature on microstructure and rheological properties of butter blends. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 89, 787–795. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-011-1965-y
Campos R, Narine SS, Marangoni AG. 2002. Effect of cooling rate on the structure and mechanical properties of milk fat and lard. Food Res. Intel. 35, 971–981. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00159-X
Cheong LZ, Hong Z, Yuan X, Xuebing X. 2010. Physical characterization of lard partial acylglycerols and their effect on melting and crystallization properties of blends with rapeseed oil. J. Agri. Food Chem. 57, 5020–5027. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf900665h PMid:19402640
Danthine S, Gibon V, Deroanne C. 2005. Physicochemical characteristics of ternary fat blends involving low-erucic rapeseed oil. European J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 107, 627–633. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200501170
De Man L, de Man JM, Blackman B. 1991. Physical and textural characteristics of some North American shortenings. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68, 63–69. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02662318
D'Souza L, deMan L, deMan JM. 1991. Chemical and physical properties of the high melting glyceride fractions of commercial margarine. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68, 153–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02657760
Ghotra BS, Dyal SD, Narine, SS. 2002. Lipid shortenings: A review. Food Res. Intel. 35, 1015–1048. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00163-1
Gamboa OWD, Gioielli LA. 2006. Comportamento de cristalização de lipídios estruturados a partir de gorduras de palmiste e óleo de peixe. Quimica Nova. 29, 646–653. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422006000400004
Haighton AJ. 1959. The measurement of the hardness of margarine and fats with cone penetrometers. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 36, 345–348. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02640051
Herrera ML, Falabella C, Melgarejo M, A-ón, MC. 1998. Isothermal crystallization of hydrogenated sunflower oil: I—Nucleation. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 1273–1280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0172-y
Hoerr CW, Waugh DF. 1950. Some physical characteristics of rearranged lard. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 32, 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02636478
Kanagaratnam S, Mat Sahri M, Idris N A, Tangavelu T, Ahmad MJ. 1995. Palm-based trans-free roll-in margarine. Palm Oil Devel. 48, 7–12.
Kanagaratnam S, Hoque ME, Mat Sahri M, Spowage A. 2013. Investigating the effect of deforming temperature on the oil-binding capacity of palm oil based shortening. J. Food Eng. 118, 90–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.03.021
Lida HMDN, Ali ARM. 1998. Physicochemical characteristics of palm-based oil blends for the production of reduced fat spreads. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 1625–1631. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0103-y
Litwinenkoa JW, Rojas AM, Gerschenson LN, Marangoni AG. 2002. Relationship between crystallization behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties in a palm oil-based shortening. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 79, 647–654. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0538-y
Liu Y, Meng Z, Shan L, Jin Q, Wang X. 2010. Preparation of specialty fats from beef tallow and canola oil by chemical interesterification: physico-chemical properties and bread applications of the products. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 230, 457–466. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1188-8
Marangoni AG. 2002. Special issue of FRI – crystallization, structure and functionality of fats. Food Res. Intel. 35, 907–908. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00152-7
Marangoni AG, Narine SS. 2002. Identifying key structural indicators of mechanical strength in networks of fat crystals. Food Res. Intel. 35, 957–969. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00158-8
Narine S, Humphrey K. 2004. A comparison of lipid shortening functionality as a function of molecular ensemble and shear: microstructure, polymorphism, solid fat content and texture. Food Res. Intel. 37, 28–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2003.09.013
O'Brien RD. 2004. In Fats and Oils–Formulating and Processing for Applications, New York, USA: CRC Press.
Oh J, McCurdy AR, Clark S, Swanson BG. 2005. Stabilizing polymorphic transitions of tristearin using diacylglycerols and sucrose polyesters. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82, 13–19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-005-1036-y
Ribeiro APB, Basso RC, Grimaldi R, Gioielli LA, Gonçalves LAG. 2009. Instrumental methods for the evaluation of interesterified fats. Food Anal. Meth. 2, 282–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-009-9073-4
Silva RC, Escobedo JP, Gioielli LA. 2008. Crystallization behaviour of structured lipids by chemical interesterification of lard and soybean oil. Quimica Nova. 31, 330–335. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422008000200027
Timms RE. 1984. Phase behaviour of fats and their mixtures. Prog. Lipid Res. 23, 1–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-7827(84)90004-3
Yanty NAM, Marikkar JMN, Shuhaimi M, Miskandar MS. 2017. Composition and thermal analysis of ternary mixtures of avocado fat:palm sterin:cocoa butter (Avo:PS:CB). Int. J. Food Prop. (published online).
Yanty NAM, Marikkar JMN, Shuhaimi M, Miskandar MS. 2014. Composition and thermal analysis of binary mixture of Mee fat and palm stearin. J. Oleo Sci. 63, 325–332. https://doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess13193
Yanty, N.A.M. Formulation of fat substitutes using plant-based fats simulating the properties of lard. PhD Thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia: Selangor D.E., Malaysia, 2016.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.