Synthesis, characterization, stability evaluation and release kinetics of fiber-encapsulated carotene nano-capsules


  • S. Sen Gupta Department of Chemical Technology, University of Calcutta
  • M. Ghosh Department of Chemical Technology, University of Calcutta



Carotenoids, Isabgol fiber, Nano-capsules, Release, Release kinetics, Stability


In the present work, carotenoids were isolated (1.2%) from crude palm oil and encapsulated with isabgol fiber (Psyllium husk). The efficiency of encapsulation was 82.23±1.42%. The morphology of the capsules showed rough surface texture with minimal pores. The amorphous natures of the nano-capsules was obvious from X-ray diffraction patterns. DSC studies showed high thermal stability of the nano-capsules between 20–120 °C. In vitro release studies revealed that controlled release from the nano-capsules could be achieved using isabgol fiber as encapsulant. However it was observed that the nano-capsules followed a non-Fickian diffusion pattern. Good DPPH-radical scavenging and metal-chelation activities were observed for encapsulated carotenoids. Shelf-life studies showed that the nano-capsules gradually degraded at 97% relative humidity, as the moisture-induced rancidity was evidently not extensive.


Download data is not yet available.


Albanes D. 1999. Beta-carotene and lung cancer: a case study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69, 1345S–1350S. PMid:10359235

Biehler E, Mayer F, Hoffmann L, Krause E, Bohn T. 2010. Comparison of 3 Spectrophotometric Methods for Carot-enoid Determination in Frequently Consumed Fruits and Vegetables. J. Food Sc. 75, 55–61. PMid:20492150

Bourne DWA. 2002. Pharmacokinetics, in Banker GS, Rhodes CT (Eds.) Modern Pharmaceutics. 4th ed, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 67–92.

Cartano AV, Juliano BO. 1970. Hemicellulose of milled rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 18, 40–42. PMid:5524465

Cerimedo MSA, Cerdeira M, Candal RJ, Herrera ML. 2008. Microencapsulation of a Low-trans Fat in Trehalose as Affected by Emulsifier Type. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 797–807.

Cheong JN, Tan CP, Che Man YB, Misran M. 2008. α-Tocopherol nanodispersions: Preparation, characterization and stability evaluation. J. Food Eng. 89, 204–209.

Dinis TCP, Madeira VMC, Almeida LM. 1994. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 315, 161–169. PMid:7979394

Eastwood MA, Morris ER. 1992. Physical properties of dietary fibre that influence physiological function: a model for polymers along the gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55, 436–442. PMid:1310375

Ersus S, Yurdagel U. 2007. Microencapsulation of anthocyanin pigments of black carrot (Daucus carota L.) by spraydrier. J. Food Eng. 80, 805–812.

Fauzi NAM, Sarmidi MR. 2010. Extraction of Heat Treated Palm Oil and Their Stability on β-carotene During Storage. J. Sc. Technol. 66, 45–54.

Graham H, Rydberg MBG, Amen P. 1988. Extraction of soluble dietary fibre. J. Agric. Food Chem. 36, 494–497.

Hadjiioannou TP, Christian GD, Koupparis MA, Macheras PE. 1993. Quantitative Calculations in Pharmaceutical Practice and Research. VCH Publishers Inc., New York.

Higuchi T. 1963. Mechanism of sustained action medication: Theoretical analysis of rate of release of solid drugs dispersed in solid matrices. J. Pharm. Sci. 52, 1145–1149. PMid:14088963

Hixson AW, Crowell JH. 1931. Dependence of reaction velocity upon surface and agitation (I) theoretical consideration. Ind. Eng. Chem. 23, 923–931.

Katerere DR, Eloff JN. 2005. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Sutherland frutescens (Fabaceae), a reputed Anti- HIV/AIDS phytomedicine. Phytother. Res. 19, 779–781. PMid:16220570

Keowmaneechai E, McClements DJ. 2006. Influence of EDTA and citrate on thermal stability of whey protein stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing calcium chloride. Food Res. Int. 39, 230–239.

Korsmeyer RW, Gurny R, Doelker E, Buri P, Peppas NA. 1983. Mechanisms of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers. Int. J. Pharm. 15, 25–35.

Li XL, Zhou AG. 2007. Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum. Med. Chem. Res. 15, 471–482.

Marie P, Perrier-Cornet JM, Gervais P. 2002. Influence of major parameters in emulsification mechanisms using a high-pressure jet. J. Food Eng. 53, 43–51.

Nitsche M, Johannisbauer W, Jordan V. 1999. Process for Obtaining Carotene from Palm Oil. US Patent No. 5902890. Olbrich C, Kayser RH. 2002. Lipase degradation of Dynasan 114 and 116 solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)—effect of surfactants, storage time and crystallinity. Int. J. Pharmacol. 237, 119–128.

Spiller G, Woods MN, Gorbach SL. 2001. Influence of fiber on the ecology of the intestinal flora, in Spiller GA (Ed.) CRC handbook of dietary fiber in human nutrition. 3rd edition, Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press LLC, 257–265.

Ping BTY. 2007. Palm carotene concentrates from crude palm oil using vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel. J. Oil Palm Res. 19, 421–427.

Ramdas M, Dileep KJ, Anitha Y, Paul W, Sharma CP. 1999. Alginate encapsulated bioadhesive chitosan microspheres for intestinal drug delivery. J. Biom. Appl. 13, 290–296.

Rodriguez-Huezo ME, Pedroza-Islas R, Prado-Barragan LA, Beristain CI, Vernon-Carter EJ. 2004. Microencapsulation by spray drying of multiple emulsions containing carotenoids. J. Food Sc. 69, E351–E359.

Sanguansri P, Augustin MA. 2006. Nanoscale materials development – a food industry perspective. Trends Food Sc. Technol. 17, 547–556.

Sen Gupta S, Ghosh M. 2012. In vitro study of anti-oxidative effects of β-carotene and α-lipoic acid for nanocapsulated lipids. LWT - Food Sc. Technol. 49, 131–138.

Tadros T, Izquierdo P, Esquena J, Solans S. 2004. Formation and stability of nanoemulsions. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 108, 303–318. PMid:15072948

Tan CP, Nakajima M. 2005. β-Carotene nanodispersions: Preparation, characterization and stability evaluation. Food Chem. 92, 661–671.

Yamaguchi F, Saito M, Ariga T, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H. 2000. Free radical scavenging activity and antiulcer activity of garcinol from Garcinia indica fruit rind. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 2320–2325. PMid:10888544



How to Cite

Sen Gupta S, Ghosh M. Synthesis, characterization, stability evaluation and release kinetics of fiber-encapsulated carotene nano-capsules. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2015Dec.30 [cited 2022Dec.9];66(4):e104. Available from: