Optimization and evaluation of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction


  • M. Pang School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology - Key Laboratory for Agricultural Products Processing of Anhui Province
  • S. J. He School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology - Key Laboratory for Agricultural Products Processing of Anhui Province
  • L. L. Cao School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology - Key Laboratory for Agricultural Products Processing of Anhui Province
  • S. T. Jiang School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology - Key Laboratory for Agricultural Products Processing of Anhui Province




Fatty acids, Foxtail millet bran oil, Physicochemical properties, Phytosterols, Reponses surface methodology, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction


A Box-Behnken central composite design combined with the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of foxtail millet bran oil (FMBO). Results showed that a maximum oil yield of 7.97% was achieved under the optimal conditions with an extracting pressure of 30.03MPa, extracting temperature of 47.93 °C; and an extraction time of 2.3 h. The quality of the oil obtained from SFE and solvent extraction (SE) was evaluated by proximate analysis to include physicochemical properties, fatty acids and sterol compounds. The FBMO obtained from SFE showed a much lower phospholipid (0.188 mg/g) content and a preferable color compared to the oil from SE, while it contained a higher content of total sterols, 1.55%. The thermal gravimetric analysis results showed one major regime of weight loss over a temperature range of 300–500 °C. The results show that FBMO obtained by SFE can be a promising nutritional source for food fortification and is understood to have more potentially healthy biological properties.


Download data is not yet available.


Amadou I, Le GW, Amza T, Sun J, Shi YH. 2013. Purification and characterization of foxtail millet-derived peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Food Res. Int. 51, 422–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.12.045

Bangoura ML, Nsor-Atindana J, Ming ZH. 2013. Solvent Optimization Extraction of Antioxidants from Foxtail millet Species' Insoluble Fibers and their Free Radical Scavenging Properties. Food Chem. 141, 736–744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.03.029 PMid:23790842

Bohn T, Tian Q, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Failla ML, Schwartz SJ, Cotter R, Waksman JA. 2007. Supplementation of test meals with fat-free phytosterol products can reduce cholesterol micellarization during simulated digestion and cholesterol accumulation by Caco-2 cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 267–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf061829l PMid:17227052

Boskou D, 2006. Olive oil: chemistry and technology. AOCS press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781439832028 PMid:17110101

Chen CR, Wang CH, Wang LY, Hong ZH, Chen SH, Ho WJ, Chang CMJ. 2008. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and deacidification of rice bran oil. J. Supercrit. Fluids 45, 322–331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2008.01.006

Chen C.-W, Cheng H.-H. 2006. A rice bran oil diet increases LDL-receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expressions and insulin sensitivity in rats with streptozotocin/ nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes. J. Nutrit. 136, 1472–1476. PMid:16702306

Chen J, Ren X, Zhang Q, Diao X, Shen Q. 2013. Determination of protein, total carbohydrates and crude fat contents of foxtail millet using effective wavelengths in NIR spectroscopy. J. Cereal Sci. 58, 241–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.07.002

Chiavaro E, Rodriguez-Estrada MT, Barnaba C, Vittadini E, Cerretani L, Bendini A. 2008. Differential scanning calorimetry: A potential tool for discrimination of olive oil commercial categories. Anal. Chim. Acta, 625, 215–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.07.031 PMid:18724997

Firestone D. 1998. Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS. American Oil Chemists' Society.

Ge Y, Yan H, Hui B, Ni Y, Wang S, Cai T. 2002. Extraction of natural vitamin E from wheat germ by supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 685–689. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf010615v PMid:11829628

Huo QG, Bi YL, Zhu XP, Wang MM. 2006. Study on components of millet oil. J. China Oil, 31, 63–64.

Innis SM, Dyer R. 1997. Dietary triacylglycerols with palmitic acid (16: 0) in the 2-position increase 16: 0 in the 2-position of plasma and chylomicron triacylglycerols, but reduce phospholipid arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and alter cholesteryl ester metabolism in formula-fed piglets. J. Nutrit. 127, 1311–1319. PMid:9202085

Jiang ST, Niu L. 2011. Optimization and evaluation of wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical CO2. Grasas Aceites 62, 181–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.078710

Kim HJ, Lee SB, Park KA, Hong IK. 1999. Characterization of extraction and separation of rice bran oil rich in EFA using SFE process. Separat. Purificat. Technol. 15, 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5866(98)00048-3

Liang S, Yang G, Ma Y. 2010. Chemical Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profile of Foxtail Millet Bran Oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87, 63–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1475-3

Pang M, He SJ, Wang L, Cao XM, Cao LL, Jiang ST. 2014. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and protective effect against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil. Food Funct. 5, 1763–1770. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4FO00106K PMid:24909671

Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Estruch R. 2004. Mediterranean diet, antioxidants and cancer: the need for randomized trials. European J. Cancer Prevent. 13, 327–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.cej.0000137512.71845.bf PMid:15554561

Moreau RA, Whitaker BD, Hicks KB. 2002. Phytosterols, phytostanols, and their conjugates in foods: structural diversity, quantitative analysis, and health-promoting uses. Progress Lipid Res. 41, 457–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7827(02)00006-1

Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C. 2006. Dietary patterns: a Mediterranean diet score and its relation to clinical and biological markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Nutrit. Metabol. Cardiovascular Diseases 16, 559–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2005.08.006 PMid:17126772

Ramadan MF, Kinni S, Seshagiri M, Mrsel JT. 2010. Fat-soluble bioactives, fatty acid profile and radical scavenging activity of Semecarpus anacardium seed oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87, 885–894. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1567-0

Sahari MA, Ataii D, Hamedi M. 2004. Characteristics of tea seed oil in comparison with sunflower and olive oils and its effect as a natural antioxidant. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 81, 585–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-0945-0

Shao P, Sun P, Ying Y. 2008. Response surface optimization of wheat germ oil yield by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Food Bioprod. Process. 86, 227–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2007.04.001

Wang Y, Sun D, Chen H, Qian L, Xu P. 2011. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed oil extracted by optimized supercritical carbon dioxide. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, 7708–7719. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117708 PMid:22174626 PMCid:PMC3233432

Wei ZJ, Liao AM, Zhang HX, Liu J, Jiang ST. 2009. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of silkworm pupal oil applying the response surface methodology. Biores. Technol. 100, 4214–4219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.04.010 PMid:19414250

Zacchi P, Daghero J, Jaeger P, Eggers R. 2006. Extraction/fractionation and deacidification of wheat germ oil using supercritical carbon dioxide. Brazilian J. Chem. Eng. 23, 105–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-66322006000100011

Zohary D, Hopf M, Weiss E. 2012. Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The origin and spread of domesticated plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin. Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199549061.001.0001



How to Cite

Pang M, He SJ, Cao LL, Jiang ST. Optimization and evaluation of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2015Dec.30 [cited 2022Dec.9];66(4):e107. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1573




Most read articles by the same author(s)