The effect of rosemary extract on 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters during frying




3-MCPD esters, Deep-fat frying, Glycidyl esters, Rosemary extract, Sunflower oil


The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) on the 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester contents during deep-fat frying. Firstly, the potato samples were soaked in different concentrations of NaCl and they were fried in sunflower oils containing different concentrations of rosemary extract. Subsequently, repeated frying was carried out with sunflower oil enriched with rosemary extract. The frying oil and the oil extracted from potato samples were analyzed in terms of the contents of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters according to DGF C VI 18 (10) method. The results demonstrated that the content of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in frying oil was not significantly affected by different NaCl and rosemary extract concentrations during short term frying; however, the amount of 3-MCPD esters was found to be lower for the potato crisps enriched with rosemary extract during repeated frying cycles.


Download data is not yet available.


Aniolowska M, Kita A. 2015. The effect of type of oil and degree of degradation on glycidyl Esters content during the frying of French fries. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 92, 1621–1631. PMid:26640279 PMCid:PMC4661204

Aniolowska M, Kita A. 2016. The effect of frying on glycidyl esters content in palm oil. Food Chem. 203, 95–103. PMid:26948594

Arisseto AP, Marcolino PFC, Augusti AC, Scaranelo GR, Berbari SAG, Miguel AM, Morgano MA, Vicente E. 2017. Contamination of Fried Foods by 3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol Fatty Acid Esters During Frying. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 94, 449–455.

Bockisch M. 1993. Nahrungsfette und-öle, Handbuch der Lebensmitteltechnologie. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, Stuttgart Hohenheim.

Casal S, Malheiro R, Sendas A, Oliveira BP, Pereira JA. 2010. Olive oil stability under deep-frying conditions. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48, 2972–2979. PMid:20678538

Chammem N, Saoudi S, Sifaoui I, Sifi S, de Person, M, Abderraba M, Moussa F, Hamdi M. 2015. Improvement of vegetable oils quality in frying conditions by adding rosemary extract. Ind. Crop Prod. 74, 592–599.

Cheng W, Liu G, Liu X. 2016. Formation of glycidyl fatty acid esters both in real edible oils during laboratory-scale refining and in chemical model during high temperature exposure. J. Agr. Food Chem. 64, 5919–5927.

Choe E, Min DB. 2007. Chemistry of deep-fat frying oils. J. Food Sci. 72, 77–86. PMid:17995742

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Fettwissenschaft (DGF). 2010. DGF-Standard method C-VI 18 (10) Fatty-acid-bound 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2,3-epoxi-propane-1-ol (glycidol) Determination in oils and fats by GC/MS.

Dingel A, Matissek R. 2015. Esters of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol and glycidol: no formation by deep frying during large-scale production of potato crisps. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 241, 719–723.

EFSA (2016). Risks for human health related to the presence of 3- and 2-monochloropropanediol (MCPD), and their fatty acid esters, and glycidyl fatty acid esters in food. EFSA J 14:4426.

Filip S, Hribar J, Vidrih R. 2011. Influence of natural antioxidants on the formation of trans- fatty- acid isomers during heat treatment of sunflower oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 113, 224–230.

Hammouda IB, Zribi A, Mansour AB, Matthäus B, Bouaziz, M. 2017. Effect of deep-frying on 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters contents and quality control of refined olive pomace oil blended with refined palm oil. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 243, 1219–1227.

Hrncirik K, van Duijn G. 2011. An initial study on the formation of 3-MCPD esters during oil refining. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 113, 374–379.

IARC. 2000. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, some industrial chemicals, IARC Monographs. 469–486.

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 1987. Standard methods for analysis of oils, fats and derivates (7th ed.), IUPAC Method 2.301. Palo Alto, CA: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Joint FAO/ WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. 2001. Summary of the Fifty-seventh Meeting of the Joint FAO/ WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Rome, 5–14 June, pp. 20–24.

Li C, Jia H, Shen M, Wang Y, Nie S, Chen Y, Zhou Y, Wang Y, Xie M. 2015. Antioxidants inhibit formation of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol esters in model reactions. J. Agr. Food Chem. 63, 9850–9854. PMid:26478126

Man YBC, Jaswir, I. 2000. Effect of rosemary and sage extracts on frying performance of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during deep-fat frying. Food Chem. 69, 301–307.

Matthäus B, Pudel F, Fehling P, Vosmann K, Freudenstein A. 2011. Strategies for the reduction of 3-MCPD esters and related compounds in vegetable oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 113, 380–386.

Matthäus B, Pudel F. 2015. Mitigation of MCPD and glycidyl esters in edible oils. Processing Contaminants in Edible Oils: MCPD and Glycidyl Esters, 23.

Romero A, Cuesta C, Sánchez-Muniz FJ. 2000. Trans fatty acid production in deep fat frying of frozen foods with different oils and frying modalities. Nutr. Res. 20, 599–608.

Sánchez-Gimeno AC, Negueruela AI, Benito M, Vercet A, Oria R. 2008. Some physical changes in Bajo Aragón extra virgin olive oil during the frying process. Food Chem. 110, 654–658.

Sehwag S, Upadhyay R, Mishra HN. 2017. Assessment of thermo-oxidative rancidity in sunflower oil and fried potato chips stabilised with oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate by altered triglycerides and electronic nose. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 53, 1211–1218.

Upadhyay R, Mishra HN. 2016. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil. J. Food Technol. 53, 1919–1928.

Upadhyay R, Sehwag S, Mishra HN. 2017a. Chemometric approach to develop frying stable sunflower oil blends stabilized with oleoresin rosemary and ascorbyl palmitate. Food Chem. 218, 496–504. PMid:27719941

Upadhyay R, Sehwag S, Mishra HN. 2017b. Electronic nose guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil using fuzzy logic analysis. Food Chem. 221, 379–385. PMid:27979217

Wong YH, Lai OM, Abas F, Nyam KL, Nehdi IA, Muhamad H, Tan CP. 2017. Factors Impacting the Formation of 3-MCPD Esters and Glycidyl Esters During Deep Fat Frying of Chicken Breast Meat. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 94, 759–765.

Zelinková Z, Svejkovská B, Velí?ek J, Dole?al M. 2006. Fatty acid esters of 3-chloropropane-1, 2-diol in edible oils. Food Addit. Contam. 23, 1290–1298. PMid:17118872

Zhang H, Jin P, Zhang M, Cheong LZ, Hu P, Zhao Y, Yu L, Wang Y, Jiang Y, Xu X. 2016. Mitigation of 3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol ester formation by radical scavengers. J. Agr. Food Chem. 64, 5887–5892. PMid:27396990



How to Cite

Yıldırım A, Yorulmaz A. The effect of rosemary extract on 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters during frying. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2018Dec.30 [cited 2023Sep.23];69(4):e273. Available from: