Mid-infrared spectroscopic detection of sunflower oil adulteration with safflower oil





Adulteration, Chemometrics, Mid-infrared spectroscopy, Safflower oil, Sunflower oil


The oil industry is in need of rapid analysis techniques to differentiate mixtures of safflower-sunflower oils from pure oils. The current adulteration detection methods are generally cumbersome and detection limits are questionable. The aim of this study was to test the capability of a mid-infrared spectroscopic method to detect the adulteration of sunflower oil with safflower oil compared to fatty acid analysis. Mid-infrared spectra of pure oils and their mixtures at the 10–60% range were obtained at 4000–650 cm-1 wavenumber and fatty acid profiles were determined. Data were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis techniques. The lowest level of detection was obtained with mid-infrared spectroscopy at 30% while the fatty acid profile could determine adulteration at around 60%. Adulteration levels were predicted successfully using PLS regression analysis of infrared data with R2 (calibration) = 0.96 and R2 (validation) = 0.93. As a rapid and minimum waste generating technique, mid-infrared spectroscopy could be a useful tool for the screening of raw material to detect safflower-sunflower oil mixtures.


Download data is not yet available.


Aparicio R, Morales MT, Aparicio-Ruiz R, Tena N, García- González DL. 2013. Authenticity of olive oil: Mapping and comparing official methods and promising alternatives. Food Res. Int. 54, 2025–2038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.07.039

Azizian H, Mossoba MM, Fardin-Kia AR, Delmonte P, Karunathilaka SR, Kramer JKG. 2015. Novel, rapid identification, and quantification of adulterants in extra virgin olive oil using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics. Lipids 50, 705–718. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-015-4038-4 PMid:26050093

Christopoulou E, Lazaraki M, Komaitis M, Kaselimis K. 2004. Effectiveness of determinations of fatty acids and triglycerides for the detection of adulteration of olive oils with vegetable oils. Food Chem. 84, 463–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00273-5

Cosge B, Gurbuz B, Kiralan M. 2007. Oil content and fatty acid composition of some safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) varieties sown in spring and winter. Int. J. Nat. Eng. Sci. 1, 11–15.

Codex. 2017. Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oils. CODEX STAN 210–1999. (assessed May, 2018) http://www.fao.org/ fao-who-codexalimentarius/sh-proxy/it/?lnk=1&url=https %253A%252F%252Fworkspace.fao.org%252Fsites%252Fc odex%252FStandards%252FCODEX%2BSTAN%2B210- 1999%252FCXS_210e.pdf

Ellis DI, Brewster VL, Dunn WB, Allwood JW, Golovanov AP, Goodacre R. 2012. Fingerprinting food: current technologies for the detection of food adulteration and contamination. Chem. Soc. Rev. 41, 5706–5727. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2cs35138b PMid:22729179

European Union Commission. 1991. European Union Commission Regulation EEC 2568/91 on the characteristics of olive oil and olive-residue oil and on the relevant methods of analysis. Off J Eur Comm.L248 (1991).

Hurriyet 2016. (assessed May, 2018) Aycicegi yaglari ile ilgili cok carpici uyari. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/eko-bitkisel-yag-sanayicilerinden-tagsis-40140305

Fernández-Martínez J, Rio MD, Haro AD. 1993. Survey of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm for variants in fatty acid composition and other seed characters. Euphytica 69, 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00021734

Gecgel U, Demirci M, Esendal E, Tasan M. 2007. Fatty acid composition of the oil from developing seeds of different varieties of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 84, 47–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1007-3

Gómez-Caravaca AM, Maggio RM, Cerretani L. 2016. Chemometric applications to assess quality and critical parameters of virgin and extra-virgin olive oil. A review. Anal Chim. Acta 913, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.01.025 PMid:26944986

Guillén MD, Cabo N. 1997. Infrared spectroscopy in the study of edible oils and fats. J. Sci. Food Agric. 75, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199709)75:1<1::AID-JSFA842>3.0.CO;2-R

Gurdeniz G, Ozen B. 2009. Detection of adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil by chemometric analysis of mid-infrared spectral data. Food Chem. 116, 519–525 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.068

Jabeur H, Zribi A, Makni J, Rebai A, Abdelhedi R, Bouaziz M. 2014. Detection of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration mixed with soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil by using GC and HPLC. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62, 4893–4904. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf500571n PMid:24811341

Jha SN, Jaiswal P, Grewal MK, Gupta M, Bhardwaj R. 2016. Detection of adulterants and contaminants in liquid foods-a review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 56, 1662–1684. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2013.798257 PMid:25975571

Karoui R, Fernández Pierna JA, Dufour E. 2008. Spectroscopic technique: Mid- infrared (MIR) and Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopies, in Sun DW (Ed.). Modern Techniques for Food Authentication. Academic Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 27–64.

Knowles PF. 1989. Safflower, in Downey RK, Röbbelen G, Ashri A. (Eds.) Oil Crops of the World. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, pp. 363–374.

Lai YW, Kemsley EK, Wilson RH. 1994. Potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the authentication of vegetable oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42, 1154–1159. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00041a020

Lerma-García MJ, Ramis-Ramos G, Herrero-Martínez JM, Simó-Alfonso EF. 2010. Authentication of extra virgin olive oils by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Food Chem. 118, 78–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.092

Mendes TO, Rocha RA da, Porto BLS, Oliveira MAL de, Anjos VDC dos, Bell MJV. 2015. Quantification of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration with soybean oil: A comparative study of NIR, MIR, and Raman spectroscopy associated with chemometric approaches. Food Anal. Meth. 8, 2339–2346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-015-0121-y

Ozen BF, Mauer LJ. 2002. Detection of hazelnut oil adulteration using FT-IR spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 3898–3901. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0201834 PMid:12083856

Rohman A, Che Man YB. 2009. Analysis of cod-liver oil adulteration using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 86, 1149–1153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1453-9

Rohman A, Che Man YB. 2010. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with palm oil. Food Res. Int. 43, 886–892. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.12.006

Tena N, Wang SC, Aparicio-Ruiz R, García-González DL, Aparicio R. 2015. In-depth assessment of analytical methods for olive oil purity, safety, and quality characterization. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63, 4509–4526. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf5062265 PMid:25891853

Velasco L, Fernández-Martínez JM. 2001. Breeding for oil quality in safflower, in Bergman, J. W., Henning Mundel, H. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Vth International Safflower Conference. North Dakota State University: Williston, North Dakota and Sidney, Montana, USA, pp. 133–137. PMid:11378934

Wang L, Lee FSC, Wang X, He Y. 2006. Feasibility study of quantifying and discriminating soybean oil adulteration in camellia oils by attenuated total reflectance MIR and fiber optic diffuse reflectance NIR. Food Chem. 95, 529–536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.04.015

Yeilaghi H, Arzani A, Ghaderian M, Fotovat R, Feizi M, Pourdad SS. 2012. Effect of salinity on seed oil content and fatty acid composition of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes. Food Chem. 130, 618–625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.07.085



How to Cite

Uncu O, Ozen B, Tokatli F. Mid-infrared spectroscopic detection of sunflower oil adulteration with safflower oil. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2019Mar.30 [cited 2023May29];70(1):e290. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1758