Chemical and physical properties of fats produced by chemical interesterification of tallow with vegetable oils
Keywords:Chemical interesterification, Chemical properties, Physical properties, Tallow, Vegetable oils
This study aims at manufacturing structured lipids by chemical interesterification (CI) of beef tallow with corn, canola and safflower oils individually at various tallow blend ratios (60, 70, 80%) and catalyst concentrations (0.75, 0.875, 1%). Several physical and chemical properties of interesterified products were determined and data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Interesterified lipids were more spreadable and showed plastic behavior due to their lower consistency and solid fat contents. Decreases in melting points to a temperature range of 26.5-45.5 °C regardless of oil type were observed. Interesterified fats displayed mostly β’ and β’+β crystal forms. The CI of tallow did not result in the formation of significant amounts of trans-fatty acids. Samples interesterified with corn oil had lower free fatty acid contents (1.87-3.9%) and higher oxidation induction times (3.82-12.25h) than other lipids. Therefore, fats containing corn oil-tallow could be used in the baking industry due to their potentially good aeration properties and smooth texture.
American Oil Chemists' Society. 2017. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the AOCS. Urbana, IL, USA.
CODEX, S. 2011. Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oils. FAO/WHO, Rome, (Codex Stan 210-1999).
Bezerra CV, da Cruz Rodrigues AM, de Oliveira PD, da Silva DA, da Silva LHM. 2017. Technological properties of amazonian oils and fats and their applications in the food industry. Food Chem. 221, 1466-1473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.004 PMid:27979116
Fauzi SHM, Rashid NA, Omar Z. 2013. Effects of chemical interesterification on the physicochemical, microstructural and thermal properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and soybean oil blends. Food Chem. 137, 8-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.086 PMid:23199984
Haighton AJ. 1959. The measurement of the hardness of margarine and fats with cone penetrometers. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 36345-348. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02640051
Hoshina R, Endo Y, Fujimoto K. 2004. Effect of triacylglycerol structures on the thermal oxidative stability of edible oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 81, 461-465. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-004-0923-6
IUPAC. 1987. Standard Methods for Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives. Oxford, UK.
Karabulut I, Turan S, Ergin G. 2004. Effects of chemical interesterification on solid fat content and slip melting point of fat/oil blends. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 218, 224-229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-003-0847-4
Kowalska M, Bekas W, Gruczynska E, Kowalski B. 2005. Modification of beef tallow fractions by chemical and enzymatic interesterification with sunflower oil. J. Food Technol. 3, 404-409.
Kowalska M, Bekas W, Kowalska D, Lobacz M, Kowalski B. 2007. Modification of beef tallow stearin by chemical and enzymatic interesterification with rapeseed oil. Am. J. Food Technol. 2, 521. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2007.521.528
Kowalski B, Tarnowska K, Gruczynska E, Bekas W. 2004. Chemical and enzymatic interesterification of a beef tallow and rapeseed oil equal-weight blend. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 106 655-664. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200400973
Ledóchowska E, Wilczyńska E. 1998. Comparison of the oxidative stability of chemically and enzymatically interesterified fats. Lipid/Fett 100, 343-348 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4133(199808)100:8<343::AID-LIPI343>3.0.CO;2-1
Lee JH, Akoh CC, Himmelsbach DS, Lee KT. 2008. Preparation of interesterified plastic fats from fats and oils free of trans fatty acid. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 4039-4046. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf072936y PMid:18476692
Martin D, Reglero G, Señoráns FJ. 2010. Oxidative stability of structured lipids. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 231 635-653. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-010-1324-5
Meng Z, Liu Y, Shan L, Jin Q, Wang X. 2010. Reduction of graininess formation in beef tallow-based plastic fats by chemical interesterification of beef tallow and canola oil. JAOCS 87, 1435-1442. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1627-5
Meng Z, Liu YF, Jin QZ, Huang JH, Song ZH, Wang FY, Wang XG. 2011. Comparative analysis of lipid composition and thermal, polymorphic, and crystallization behaviors of granular crystals formed in beef tallow and palm oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 1432-1441. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf103875f PMid:21222456
Morselli Ribeiro MD, Ming CC, Silvestre IM, Grimaldi R, Ap G, Gonçalves L. 2017. Comparison between enzymatic and chemical interesterification of high oleic sunflower oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 119, 1500473. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201500473
Naeli MH, Farmani J, Zargaraan A. 2017. Rheological and physicochemical modification of trans-free blends of palm stearin and soybean oil by chemical interesterification. J. Food Process Eng. 40, e12409. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12409
Oliveira PD, Rodrigues AM, Bezerra CV, Silva LH. 2017. Chemical interesterification of blends with palm stearin and patawa oil. Food Chem. 215, 369-376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.165 PMid:27542488
Ribeiro APB, Basso RC, Grimaldi R, Gioielli LA, dos Santos AO, Cardoso LP, Gonçalves LAG. 2009. Influence of chemical interesterification on thermal behavior, microstructure, polymorphism and crystallization properties of canola oil and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil blends. Food Res. Int. 42, 1153-1162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.05.016
Rodríguez A, Castro E, Salinas MC, López R, Miranda M. 2001. Interesterification of tallow and sunflower oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78, 431-436. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-001-0280-5
Segura N, Jachmanián I. 2020. Zero-trans fats by enzymatic interesterification of blends beef tallow/rice bran oil. OCL 27 (4). https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2019052
Silva RC, Cotting LN, Poltronieri TP, Balcão VM, de Almeida DB, Goncalves LA, Gioielli LA. 2009. The effects of enzymatic interesterification on the physical-chemical properties of blends of lard and soybean oil. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 42, 1275-1282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2009.02.015
Tourchi Rudsari M, Najafian L, Shahidi SA. 2019. Effect of chemical interesterification on the physicochemical characteristics of bakery shortening produced from palm stearin and Ardeh oil (Sesamum indicum) blends. J. Food Proc. Pres. e14101, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.14101
Zhang Z, Shim YY, Ma X, Huang H, Wang Y. 2018. Solid fat content and bakery characteristics of interesterified beef tallow-palm mid fraction based margarines. RSC Adv. 8, 12390-12399. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RA00769A
Zhang Z, Lee WJ, Zhou H, Wang Y. 2019. Effects of chemical interesterification on the triacylglycerols, solid fat contents and crystallization kinetics of palm oil-based fats. Food Funct. 10, 7553-7564. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9FO01648A PMid:31687723
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.
İzmir Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü
Grant numbers 2017-IYTE-3