Determination of bovine tallow in butter using a comprehensive method




Bovine tallow, Fatty acid, Pure butter, Sterols, Triacylglycerols


The detection of animal fats such as tallow in butter using standard criteria is more difficult than vegetable fats. In order to perform a complete assessment, several methods are likely to be used together. In the experimental design of this research, compositional characteristics such as fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerols, along with the conventional physicochemical characteristics of butter mixed with different percentages of tallow (0–15% w/w) were evaluated. An increase of less than 5% (w/w) in bovine tallow content in butter physicochemical tests, sterols and fatty acids could not indicate the adulteration level but the ratio of C6+8+10+12/C18 fatty acids, C52/C50، C52/C48, C52/C46 triacylglycerols, S1, S3, S5-value equation and C52 triacylglycerols could show this adulteration level in butter. Also, the successive use of fatty acids and triacylglycerols resulted in the capability to determine adulteration in butter including bovine tallow above 1% (w/w).


Download data is not yet available.


Amrutha Kala AL, Sabeena K, Pramod Havanur P. 2016. Determination of triacylglycerol and sterol components of fat to authenticate ghee based sweets. J. Food Sci. Technol. 53 (4), 2144-2147. PMid:27413245 PMCid:PMC4926921

AOCS. Saponification value. American Oil Chemists' Society. Method no.1998/Cd 3b-76

AOCS. Slip melting point. American Oil Chemists' Society. Method no.1997b/Cc 3-25

Codex Stan. Olive oils and olive pomace oils. Codex Stan 2015/33 Codex Stan. Butter. Codex Stan 2010/279

Commission Regulation (EC). Determining sitosterol or stigmasterol in butter or concentrated butter by capillary- column gas chromatography. Commission Regulation (EC) no.2008/273

Dardiri MM. 1985. Laboratory Experiments for Food Analysis. Food Science and Technology, University of Gezira.

Destaillats F, Wispelaere M, Joffre F, Golay PA, Hug B, Giuffrida F. 2006. Authenticity of milk fat by fast analysis of triacylglycerols application to the detection of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. J. Chromatogr. A 1131, 227-234. PMid:16893547

Fathiteil R, Hessari J, Azadmmard Damirchi S, Nemati M, Peighambardoost SH, Raafat SA. 2014. Determination of margarine in butter. Iran J. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 10, 85-90.

Hocquette JF, Gigli S. 2005. Indicators of milk and beef quality. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands.

IDF. 2008. Nutritional quality of milk fat. Brussels, Belgium: International Dairy Federation.

Iranian National Standard. Pasteurized butter- Test method- Specifications. Method no. 2007/162

ISO. Animal and vegetable fats and oils- Determination of iodine value. Method no. 2013/3961

ISO. Animal and vegetable fats and oils- Determination of refractive index. Method no. 2000/6320

ISO. Butter-Determination of firmness. Method no. 2005/16305

ISO. Milk fat-Determination of the fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. Method no. 2002/15885

ISO. Milk and milk products-Determination of milk fat purity by gas chromatographic analysis of triglycerides. Method no. 2010/17678

Jensen RG. 2002. Invited Review: The composition of bovine milk lipids: January 1995 to December 2000. J. Dairy Sci. 85, 295-350.

Kamm W, Dionisi F, Hischenhuber C, Engel KH. 2001. Authenticity of fats and oils. Food Rev. Int. 17, 249-290.

Kaufmann P, Hersl.f BG. 1991. A multivariate identification of natural triglyceride oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 93, 179-183.

Kumar A, Upadhyay N, Padghan PV, Gandhi K, Lal D, Sharma V. 2015. Detection of vegetable oil and animal depot fat adulteration in anhydrous milk fat (Ghee) using fatty acid composition. MOJ. Food Processing Technol. 1, 1-8.

Mahlenbacher CV. 1960. The Analysis of Fats and Oils. Garrard Publishing, Champaign, Illinois.

Montealegre C, Marina Alegre ML, Garcia Ruiz C. 2010. Traceability markers to the botanical origin in olive oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 28-38. PMid:19961225

Nollet LML, Toldra F. 2010. HandBook of Dairy Foods Analysis. Boca Raton, London, New York.

Palmquist DL. 2006. Milk Fat: Origin of fatty acids and influence of nutritional factors there on, in Fox PF,

McSweeney PLH (Eds.) Advanced dairy chemistry, 3nd ed, Vol 2. Lipids, Springer, New York, pp. 43-92.

Rutkowska J, Adamska A. 2011. Fatty acid composition of butter originated from North-Eastern region of Poland. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 61, 93-187.

Soha S, Mortazavian AM, Piravi-Vanak Z, Mohammadifar MA, Sahafar H, Nanvazadeh S. 2015. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter. Recent Pat. Food Nutr. Agric. 7 (2), 134-140. PMid:26246145

Sulieman AME, Mohammed MB, Ali AO. 2013. Physicochemical and sensory properties of traditionally and laboratory made ghee (Samin) of the Sudan. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. Eng. 3 (1), 7-11.

Toppino PM, Contarini G, Trauersi AL, Amelotti G, Gargario A. 1980. Gas chromatographic parameters of genuine butter. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Gr. 59, 592.

Ulberth F, Buchgraber M. 2000. Authenticity of fats and oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 102, 687-694.<687::AID-EJLT687>3.0.CO;2-F



How to Cite

Nilchian Z, Ehsani MR, Piravi-Vanak Z, Bakhoda H. Determination of bovine tallow in butter using a comprehensive method. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2020Mar.30 [cited 2022Nov.28];71(1):e338. Available from: