Effect of process variables on the yield and quality of jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) kernel oil from aqueous extraction
Keywords:Fatty acid, Lipid, Palm, Response surface methodology
The fruit from jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) has a kernel which is rich in oil, and has a pleasant smell that reminds one of coconut. It is rich in monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, in addition to bioactive compounds. In this work, the effect of process variables on the yield and quality of jerivá kernel oil from aqueous extraction was evaluated using response surface methodology. The variables pH, time and temperature influenced the yield and the quality of the oil. High pH and time, along with mild temperature were suitable conditions to extract jerivá kernel oil by aqueous extraction, but excessively high pH, temperature and time negatively impacted the oil’s quality. pH was the only variable that significantly influenced free acidity, with a decrease in free acidity with the increase in pH. On the other hand, the increase in pH, time and temperature increased the peroxide value, which limited some conditions for obtaining jerivá kernel oil by aqueous extraction. The optimal conditions were found to be an extraction at pH 12, 25 °C and 60 minutes, which resulted in a yield of 39%, free acidity of 0.2% and a peroxide value of 5.8 meqO2·kg-1. Aqueous extraction yielded more unsaturated oil than that extracted with hexane, in addition to a higher proportion of caproic, oleic and linoleic acids, thus improving its nutritional characteristics and health benefits, despite decreasing its oxidative stability.
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