Microwave-assisted transesterification of sour cherry kernel oil for biodiesel production: comparison with ultrasonic bath-, ultrasonic probe-, and ohmic-assisted transesterification methods





Biodiesel, Microwave, Sour cherry kernel oil, Transesterification


In this study, sour cherry kernel oil was converted to biodiesel by microwave-assisted transesterification. Evaluations were made of several variables, namely, reaction time (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min), microwave power (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 W), methanol/oil mole ratio (3, 6, 9, 12, and 15), and catalyst (KOH) concentration (0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.2%, and 1.5%). The efficiency of fatty acid methyl esters increased in response to lengthier reaction times, greater microwave power, higher methanol/oil mole ratio, and higher catalyst concentrations up to the optimal level. The optimal reaction conditions for microwave-assisted transesterification were 300 W microwave power, 1.2% catalyst concentration, a methanol/oil mole ratio of 1:2, and a reaction time of 4 min. Microwave-assisted transesterification was more effective than ohmic-, magnetic stirrer-, ultrasonic probe-, and ultrasonic bath-assisted transesterification methods. In conclusion, microwave-assisted transesterification can be suggested as a fast, efficient, and economical method compared to other transesterification methods.


Download data is not yet available.


Alishahi A, Golmakani MT, Niakousari M. 2021. Feasibility Study of Microwave-Assisted Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil Refinery Waste. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 123, 2000377. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.202000377

AOCS. 2000. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society (5th Ed.). USA, AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois.

ASTM. 2013. Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Distillate Fuels, ASTM D6751-12.

Almasi S, Najafi G, Ghobadian B, Jalili S. 2021. Biodiesel production from sour cherry kernel oil as novel feedstock using potassium hydroxide catalyst: Optimization using response surface methodology. ISBAB 35, 102089. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2021.102089

Atapour M, Kariminia H. 2011. Characterization and transesterification of Iranian bitter almond oil for biodiesel production. Appl. Energy 88, 2377-2381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.01.014

Azcan N, Danisman A. 2008. Microwave assisted transesterification of rapeseed oil. Fuel 87, 1781-1788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2007.12.004

Azcan N, Yilmaz O. 2013. Microwave assisted transesterification of waste frying oil and concentrate methyl ester content of biodiesel by molecular distillation. Fuel 104, 614-619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.06.084

Cavalcante KS, Penha MN, Mendonca KK, Louzeiro HC, Vasconcelos AC, Maciel AP, Souza AG, Silva FC. 2010. Optimization of transesterification of castor oil with ethanol using a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Fuel 89, 1172-1176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2009.10.029

Chen K, Lin Y, Hsu K, Wang H. 2012. Improving biodiesel yields from waste cooking oil by using sodium methoxide and a microwave heating system. Energy 38, 151-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.12.020

Dehghan L, Golmakani M-T, Hosseini SMH. 2021. Improving biodiesel yield from pre-esterified inedible olive oil using microwave-assisted transesterification method. Grasas Aceites 72, e417. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0336201

Dehghan L, Golmakani M-T, Hosseini SMH. 2019. Optimization of microwave-assisted accelerated transesterification of inedible olive oil for biodiesel production. Renew. Energ. 138, 915-922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.02.017

Golmakani M-T, Dehghan L, Rahimizad N. 2022. Biodiesel production enhanced by ultrasound-assisted esterification and transesterification of inedible olive oil. Grasas Aceites 73, e447. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.1233202

Gornas P, Rudzinska M, Raczyk M, Misina I, Soliven A, Seglina D. 2016. Composition of bioactive compounds in kernel oils recovered from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) by-products: Impact of the cultivar on potential applications. Ind. Crops Prod. 82, 44-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.12.010

Kanitkar A, Balasubramanian S, Lima M, Boldor D. 2011. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 7896-7902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.05.091 PMid:21715160

Korlesky NM, Stolp LJ, Kodali DR, Goldschmidt R, Byrdwell WC. 2016. Extraction and characterization of montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil. J. Am. Oil Chem.' Soc. 93, 995-1005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-016-2835-4

Leung DYC, Wu X, Leung MKH. 2010. A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Appl. Energy 87, 1083-1095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.10.006

Lin J, Chen Y. 2017. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of Jatropha oil with microwave heating. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 75, 43-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.03.034

Lin Y, Hsu K, Lin J. 2014. Rapid palm-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and sodium methoxide catalyst. Fuel 115, 306-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.022

Ma F, Hanna MA. 1999. Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 70, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00025-5

Mahlinda S, Supardan MD, Husin H, Riza M, Muslim A. 2017. A comparative study of biodiesel production from screw pine fruit seed: using ultrasound and microwave assistance in in-situ transesterification. JESTEC 12, 3412-3425

Motasemi F, Ani FN. 2012. A review on microwave-assisted production of biodiesel. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 16, 4719-4733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.069

Patil PD, Gude VG, Mannarswamy A, Cooke P, Munson-McGee S, Nirmalakhandan N, Lammers P, Deng S. 2011. Optimization of microwave-assisted transesterification of dry algal biomass using response surface methodology. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 1399-1405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.046 PMid:20933395

Popa V, Misca C, Bordean D, Raba D, Stef D, Dumbrava D. 2011. Characterization of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) kernel oil cultivars from Banat. J. Agroaliment. Processes Technol. 15, 398-401.

Sajjadi B, Abdul Aziz AR, Ibrahim S. 2014. Investigation, modelling and reviewing the effective parameters in microwave-assisted transesterification. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 37, 762-777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.021

Sharma A, Kodgire P, Kachhwaha SS. 2019. Biodiesel production from waste cotton-seed cooking oil using microwave-assisted transesterification: Optimization and kinetic modeling. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 116, 109394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.109394

Suppalakpanya K, Ratanawilai SB, Tongurai C. 2010. Production of ethyl ester from crude palm oil by two-step reaction with a microwave system. Fuel 89, 2140-2144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.04.003

Talebian-Kiakalaieh A, Amin NAS, Mazaheri H. 2013. A review on novel processes of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Appl. Energy 104, 638-710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.061

Yilmaz FM, Görgüç A, Karaaslan M, Vardin H, Bilek SE, Uygun Ö, Bircan C. 2019. Sour Cherry By-products: Compositions, Functional Properties and Recovery Potentials. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 59, 3549-3563. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1496901 PMid:30040438

Zhang H, Ding J, Zhao Z. 2012. Microwave assisted esterification of acidified oil from waste cooking oil by CERP/PES catalytic membrane for biodiesel production. Bioresour. Technol. 123, 72-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.06.082 PMid:22940301

Zhang S, Zu Y, Fu Y, Luo M, Zhang D, Efferth T. 2010. Rapid microwave-assisted transesterification of yellow horn oil to biodiesel using a heteropolyacid solid catalyst. Bioresour. Technol. 101, 931-936. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.069 PMid:19793648

Zu Y, Zhang S, Fu Y, Liu W, Liu Z, Luo M, Efferth T. 2009. Rapid microwave-assisted transesterification for the preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from the oil of yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.). Eur. Food Res. Technol. 229, 43-49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1024-1



How to Cite

Golmakani MT, Niakousari M, Peykar A, Safaeipour T. Microwave-assisted transesterification of sour cherry kernel oil for biodiesel production: comparison with ultrasonic bath-, ultrasonic probe-, and ohmic-assisted transesterification methods. Grasas aceites [Internet]. 2024Apr.10 [cited 2024May18];75(1):e545. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/2166