Optimization of olive-fruit paste production using a methodological proposal based on a sensory and objective color analysis


  • María Luisa Escudero-Gilete Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Seville
  • A. J. Meléndez-Martínez Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Seville
  • F. J. Heredia Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Seville
  • Isabel M. Vicario Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Seville




Olive paste production, Pair-comparison test, Product development, Rank order test, Sensory analysis


This paper deals with the optimization of the conditions to formulate paste based on olive fruits. The processing stages included: washing, blending, oil addition and preservation. Pair-comparisons and ranking tests were carried out by both a trained panel and a consumer panel to single out the preferred sample at each stage. The sensory attributes considered were taste, visual texture, texture in the mouth and overall preference. The results of the sensory analyses were processed statistically by means of ANOVA and the Friedman test to select the most appropriate processing conditions: washing for 30 minutes three times, blending at 2000 r.p.m, and the addition of 10 mL of oil. Several pasteurization conditions were assayed (62.5, 75, 85 and 95 °C for 15 minutes). No significant color differences (p < 0.05) were found for the objective color measurement (CIELAB) of the pastes submitted to the different pasteurization conditions. Based on the results of the preference test, the pasteurization conditions selected were heating at 85 °C for 15 minutes


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullah A, Cheng TG. 2001. Optimization of reduced calorie tropical mixed fruits jam. Food Qual Prefer 12, 63-68. doi:10.1016/S0950-3293(00)00030-6

Abu-Salem FM, Abou-Arab, AA. 2008. Evaluación química, microbiológica y sensorial de mayonesa preparada con huevos de avestruz. Grasas Aceites 59, 352-360. doi:10.3989/gya.2008.v59.i4.529

Calvo C, Salvador A, Fiszman SM. 2001. Influence of color intensity on the perception of color and sweetness in various fruitflavoured yoghurts. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 213, 99-103. doi:10.1007/s002170100359

CIE. 1986. Colorimetry (2nd ed.; Publication 15.2). Bureau Central de la CIE, Viena.

Coello MT, Sánchez MJ, Vicario IM, Heredia FJ, Martín M. 1999. Assessing acceptability of eel (Anguilla anguilla) fed three different diets. J. Sci. Food Agr. 79 (15), 2087-2093. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199912)79:15<2087::AID-JSFA480>3.0.CO;2-Z

Coleman CJ. 1990. Applications of qualitative research for sensory analisis and product development. Food Technol. 44 (11), 164-174.

Deshpande RP, Chinnan MS, McWatters KH. 2008. Optimization of a chocolate-flavored, peanut–soy beverage using response surface methodology (RSM) as applied to consumer acceptability data. LWT - Food Sci. Technol 41 (8), 1485-1492.

Fisher L. 1998. Rattlesnake bites—treatment or mistreatment?. Nurs. Spectrum 8, 20-23.

Friedman M. 1937. The use of ranks to avoid the assumptions of normality implicit in the analysis of variance. J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 32, 675-701. doi:10.2307/2279372

González F, Rejano L, González F. 1982. La pasterización de aceitunas estilo sevillano, I. Grasas Aceites 33, 201-207.

González MM, Navarro T, Gómez G, Pérez RA, de Lorenzo C. 2007. Análisis sensorial de aceituna de mesa: II. Aplicabilidad práctica y correlación con el análisis instrumental. Grasas Aceites 58, 231-236. doi:10.3989/gya.2007.v58.i3.177

Hollander M, Wolfe DA. 1973. Nonparametric Statistical Methods (p. 151). Wiley, New York.

Hutchings JB. 1994. Food color and appearance. Blackie Academic & Professional, Glasgow.

IOOC. 2004. Trade Standard Applying to Table Olives, (Res-2/91-IV/04). International Olive Oil Council, Madrid.

ISO 5495. 1983. Sensory Analysis. Methodology. Paired comparision test. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.

ISO 8587. 2001. Sensory Analysis. Methodology-Ranking. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.

Lawless HT, Michelle RC. (1993). Application of the central dogma in sensory evaluation. Food Technol. 47 (6), 139-146.

Moldão-Martins M, Berião-da-Costa S, Neves C, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L, Berião-da-Costa ML. 2004. Olive oil flavoured by the essantial oils of Mentha x piperita and Thymus mastichina L. Food Qual. Prefer. 15, 447-452. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2003.08.001

Moskowitz H, Gofman A, Beckley J. 2005. Using high-level consumer-research methods to create a tool-driven guidebook and database for product development and marketing. J. Sens. Stud. 21, 54-100. doi:10.1111/j.1745-459X.2006.00052.x

Muñoz AM, Civille GV, Carr BT. 1992. Sensory evaluation in quality control. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Norman GR, Streiner DL. 1996. Bioestadística. Mosby/ Doyma Libros, S.A. Times Mirror International Publishers, Madrid.

Pecore S, Kellen L. 2002. A consumer-focused QC/sensory program in the food industry. Food Qual. Prefer. 13, 369-374. doi:10.1016/S0950-3293(02)00058-7

Royer G, Madieta E, Symoneaux R, Jourjon F. 2006. Preliminary study of the production of apple pomace and quince jelly. LWT – Food Sci. Technol. 39, 1022- 1025.

Sánchez Gómez AH, García García P, Rejano Navarro L. 2006. Trends in table olive production. Grasas Aceites 57 (1), 86-94. doi:10.3989/gya.2006.v57.i1.24

Sánchez AH, Rejano L, Montaño A. 1991. Kinetics of the destruction by heat of color and texture of pickled green olives. J. Sci. Food Agr. 54, 379-385. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740540308

Sozer N, Dalgiç A, Kaya A. 2007. Thermal, textural, and cooking properties of spaghetti enriched with resistant starch. J. Food Eng. 81, 476-484. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.11.026

StatSoft Inc. 2001. Data analysis software system (Statistica for Windows v.6.0). Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Yantis JE. 1992. Introduction/program objectives for plant sensory function in QA/QC programs, in Yantis JE (Ed.) The role of sensory analysis in quality control (ASTM Manual Series: MNL 14, pp. 1). American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp.1.




How to Cite

Escudero-Gilete ML, Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Heredia FJ, Vicario IM. Optimization of olive-fruit paste production using a methodological proposal based on a sensory and objective color analysis. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2009Sep.30 [cited 2021Dec.4];60(4):396-404. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/591