Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 4 (2013)

Analysis of chicken fat as adulterant in butter using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

A. F. Nurrulhidayah
Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

A. Rohman
Research Center of Halal Products and Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia

I. Amin
Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia - Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

M. Shuhaimi
Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

A. Khatib
Laboratory of Natural Product, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia - Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia


Butter may be adulterated with cheaper animal fats, such as chicken fat (CF). Thus, the detection and quantification of butter adulteration with CF was monitored using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometric of partial least square (PLS) at the frequency regions of 1200-1000cm–1. FTIR measurements were made on pure butter and that adulterated with varying concentrations of CF (0-100% w/w in butter). PLS calibration exhibits a good relationship between actual and FTIR predicted values of CF with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.981. The root means standard error of calibration (RMSEC) and during cross validation (RMSECV) obtained using six principal components (PCs) are 2.08 and 4.33% v/v, respectively.


Animal fat; Butter; Chemometrics; FTIR spectroscopy; Multivariate calibration

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