Grasas y Aceites, Vol 61, No 2 (2010)

Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

Santiago P. Aubourg
Food Technology Department, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), Spain

Victoria Álvarez
Food Technology Department, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), Spain

Javier Pena
Food Technology Department, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), Spain


This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days) related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). A slurry ice (SI) system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI). Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA) formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment and TMA formation. However, lipid damage development was found relatively low, in agreement to the different lipid quality indexes checked (lipid hydrolysis; primary, secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation). No development of rancid odor and no polyunsaturated fatty acid losses were detected. The employment of SI as a slaughtering and chilling strategy was found useful to inhibit quality loss in gilthead seabream resulting in a shelf life increase and a TMA and free fatty acid formation inhibition.


Chilling; Farming; Gilthead seabream; Lipid damage; Slaughtering; Slurry ice

Full Text:



Ackman R. 1989. Fatty acids in Ackman R (Ed.) Marine Biogenic Lipids, Fats and Oils, Vol. 1, pp. 103-137. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl, USA.

Alasalvar C, Taylor A, Shahidi F. 2002. Comparative quality assessment of cultured and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata) stored in ice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 2039-2045. doi:10.1021/jf010769a PMid:11902954

Álvarez V, Feás X, Barros-Velázquez J, Aubourg S. 2009. Quality changes of farmed blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo) subjected to slaughtering and storage under flow ice and ozonised flow ice. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44, 1561-1571. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01836.x

Aubourg S, Medina I, Gallardo JM. 1998. Quality assessment of blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) during chilled storage by monitoring lipid damages. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 3662-3666. doi:10.1021/jf980362e

Aubourg S, Medina I, Pérez-Martín R. 1996. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in tuna phospholipids: distribution in the sn-2 location and changes during cooking. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 585-589. doi:10.1021/jf950234f

Aubourg S, Ugliano M. 2002. Effect of brine pre-treatment on lipid stability of frozen horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Eur. Food Res. Technol. 215, 91-95. doi:10.1007/s00217-002-0530-1

Aubourg S. 1999. Recent advances in assessment of marine lipid oxidation by using fluorescence. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 409-419. doi:10.1007/s11746-999-0018-2

Aubourg S. 2001. Fluorescence study of the pro-oxidant effect of free fatty acids on marine lipids. J. Sci. Food Agric. 81, 385-390. doi:10.1002/1097-0010(200103)81:4<385::AID-JSFA821>3.0.CO;2-X

Bligh E, Dyer W. 1959. A rapid method of total extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37, 911-917. PMid:13671378

Caballero M, Betancor M, Escrig J, Montero D, Espinosa de los Monteros A, Castro P, Ginés R, Izquierdo M. 2009. Post mortem changes produced in the muscle of sea bream (Sparus aurata) during iced storage. Aquaculture, 291, 210-216. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.03.032

Cakli S, Kilinc B, Cadun A, Dincer T, Tolasa S. 2006. Effect of ungutting on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of aquacultured sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored in ice. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 222, 719-726. doi:10.1007/s00217-005-0014-1

Chaouqy NE, Gallardo JM, El Marrakchi A. Aubourg S. 2008. Lipid damage development in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) muscle during storage under refrigerated conditions. Grasas y Aceites 59, 309-315.

Chapman R, McKay J. 1949. The estimation of peroxides in fats and oils by the ferric thiocyanate method. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 26, 360-363. doi:10.1007/BF02651444

DOCE. 1989. Baremo de clasificación de frescura. In: Diario Oficial de las Comunidades Europeas, nº L 5/21, pp. 5-6. European Communities, Brussels, Belgium.

Erkan N. 2007. Sensory, chemical, and microbiological attributes of sea bream (Sparus aurata): Effect of washing and ice storage. Int. J. Food Propert. 10, 421-434. doi:10.1080/10942910600848915

FAO. 2007. Fishery statistics. Aquaculture production. In Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Yearbook 2005, Vol. 100/2, p. 84, Rome, Italy.

Fountoulaki E, Vasilaki A, Hurtado R, Grigorakis K, Karacostas I, Nengas I, Rigos G, Kotzamanis Y, Venou B, Alexis M. 2009. Fish oil substitution by vegetable oils in commercial diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.); effects on growth performance, flesh quality and fillet fatty acid profile. Recovery of fatty acid profiles by a fish oil finishing diet under fluctuating water temperatures. Aquaculture 289, 317-326. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.01.023

Grigorakis K, Taylor K, Alexis M. 2003. Seasonal patterns of spoilage of ice-stored cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Food Chem. 81, 263-268. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00421-1

Harris P, Tall J. 1994. Rancidity in fish in Allen J, Hamilton R (Eds.) Rancidity in foods, pp. 256-272. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.

Huidobro A, Mendes R, Nunes ML. 2001. Slaughtering of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in liquid ice: influence on fish quality. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 213, 267-272. doi:10.1007/s002170100378

Kilinc B, Cakli S, Cadun A, Dincer T, Tolasa S. 2007. Comparison of effects of slurry ice and flake ice pretreatments on the quality of aquacultured sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored at 4 °C. Food Chem. 104, 1611-1617. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.002

Kyrana W, Laugovois V, Valsamis D. 1997. Assessment of shelf-life of maricultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) stored in ice. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 32, 339-347. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.1997.00408.x

Labuza T. 1971. Kinetics of lipid oxidation in foods. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Technology 2, 355-405. doi:10.1080/10408397109527127

López-Caballero MªE, Huidobro A, Pastor A, Tejada M. 2002. Microflora of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) stored in ice. Effect of washing. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 215, 396-400. doi:10.1007/s00217-002-0574-2

Lougovois V, Kyranas E, Kyrana V. 2003. Comparison of selected methods of assessing freshness quality and remaining storage life of iced gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Food Res. Intern. 36, 551-560. doi:10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00220-X

Lowry R, Tinsley I. 1976. Rapid colorimetric determination of free fatty acids. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 53, 470-472. doi:10.1007/BF02636814 PMid:956589

Medina I, Gallardo JM, Aubourg S. 2009. Quality preservation in chilled and frozen fish products by employment of slurry ice and natural antioxidants. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44, 1467-1479. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02016.x

Miyashita K, Takagi T. 1986. Study on the oxidative rate and prooxidant activity of free fatty acids. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 63, 1380-1384. doi:10.1007/BF02679607

Olafsdóttir G, Martinsdóttir E, Oehlenschläger J, Dalgaard P, Jensen B, Undeland I, Mackie I, Henehan G, Nielsen J, Nilsen H. 1997. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 8, 258-265. doi:10.1016/S0924-2244(97)01049-2

Özogul F, Kuley E, Özogul Y. 2007. Sensory, chemical and microbiological quality parameters in sea bream (Sparus aurata) stored in ice or wrapped in cling film or in aluminium foil at 2 1 °C. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 42, 903-909. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01305.x

Pena J, Trigo M, Bouzada G, Fernández D, Barros-Velázquez J, Aubourg S. 2009. Chemical changes in chilled farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Effect of advanced icing conditions. Czech J. Food Sci. 27, S277-S2792.

Pigott G, Tucker B. 1990. Seafood: effects of technology on nutrition, pp. 66-84. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA.

Pokorny J. 1981. Browning from lipid-protein interactions. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci. 5, 421-428.

Refsgaard H, Brockhoff P, Jensen B. 2000. Free polyunsaturated fatty acids cause taste deterioration of salmon during frozen storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3280-3285. doi:10.1021/jf000021c PMid:10956102

Senso L, Suárez M, Ruiz-Cara T, García-Gallego M. 2007. On the possible effects of harvesting season and chilled storage on the fatty acid profile of the fillet of farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Food Chem. 101, 298-307. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.036

Simopoulos A. 1997. Nutritional aspects of fish in Luten J, Börrensen T, Oehlenschläger J. (Eds.) Seafood from producer to consumer, Integrated Approach to Quality, pp. 589-607. Elsevier Science, London, UK.

Smith G, Hole M, Hanson S. 1990. Assessment of lipid oxidation in Indonesian salted-dried marine catfish (Arius thalassinus). J. Sci. Food Agric. 51, 193-205. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740510207

Tejada M, Huidobro A, Mohamed F. 2003. Comparison of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and hake (Merluccius merluccius) muscle proteins during iced and frozen storage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 83, 113-122. doi:10.1002/jsfa.1289

Tozawa H, Erokibara K, Amano K. 1971. Proposed modification of Dyer’s method for trimethylamine determination in codfish in Kreuzer R. (Ed.) Fish Inspection and Quality Control, pp. 187-190. Fishing News Books Ltd., London, UK.

Vyncke W. 1970. Direct determination of the thiobarbituric acid value in trichloracetic acid extracts of fish as a measure of oxidative rancidity. Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 72, 1084-1087. doi:10.1002/lipi.19700721218

White P. 1994. Conjugated diene, anisidine value and carbonyl value analyses in Warner K, Eskin M. (Eds.) Methods to assess quality and stability of oils and fat-containing foods, pp. 159-178. AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois, USA.

Whittle K, Hardy R, Hobbs G. 1990. Chilled fish and fishery products in Gormley T. (Ed.) Chilled foods: The state of the art, pp. 87-116. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, USA.

Yamada M, Fukusako S, Kawanami T. 2002. Performance analysis on the liquid-ice thermal storage system for optimum operation. Int. J. Refrig. 25, 267-277. doi:10.1016/S0140-7007(01)00088-3

Yildiz M, Sener E, Timur M. 2008. Effect of differences in diet and seasonal changes on the fatty acid composition in fillets from farmed and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 43, 853-858.

Copyright (c) 2010 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Contact us

Technical support