Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India
Keywords:Coconut oil, Composition, Nutraceuticals, Physico-chemical characteristics, Radical scavenging activity
The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO) or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO)] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units), free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%), and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg−1) of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%), medium chain fatty acids (69.65%) and medium chain triglycerides (59.27%) mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%), dilauricmonocaprin (18.89%) and trilaurin (21.88%) were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.
AOCS 1990. Method Ca 5a-40. Estimation of free fatty acid value. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist's Society, Champaign, IL, USA.
AOCS 1990. Method Cd 8-53. Estimation of peroxide value. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist's Society, Champaign, IL, USA.
AOCS 2004. Method Cd 3-25. Estimation of saponification value. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist's Society, Champaign, IL, USA.
AOCS 2004. Method Cd 1d-92. Estimation of iodine value (Wij's method). Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist’s Society, Champaign, IL, USA.
AOCS 1998. Method Ce 1-62. Preparation of fatty acid methyl ester. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist's Society, Champaign, IL, USA.
AOCS 1998. Method Ce 2-66 Fatty acid analysis by gas chromatograph. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist’s Society, Champaign, IL, USA.
AOCS 1998. Method Ce 5b-89 Triacylglycerol composition by high performance liquid chromatography. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist's Society, Champaign, IL, USA.
AOCS 1998. Method Ce 8-86 Tocopherol composition by high performance liquid chromatography. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist’s Society, Champaign, IL, USA.
Babayan VK. (1987). Medium chain triglycerides and structured lipids. Lipids. 22, 417–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02537271
Bhatnagar AS, Prasanth Kumar PK, Hemavathy J, Gopala Krishna AG. 2009. Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, and radical scavenging activity of vegetable oil blends with coconut oil. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 86, 991–999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1435-y
Codex Alimentarius. 2003. Codex standard for named vegetable oils. Codex Stan. 210, Pp 5–13.
Das S, Nesaretnam K, Das DK. 2007. Tocotrienols in cardioprotection. Vitamins and Hormones. 76, 419–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0083-6729(07)76016-8
German JB, Dillard CJ. 2004. Saturated fats: What dietary intake? American J. Clin. Nutr. 80, 550–559.
Gopala Krishna AG, Gaurav Raj, Bhatnagar AS, Prasanth Kumar PK, Preeti Chandrashekar. 2010. Coconut oil: chemistry, production and its applications -A Review. Indian Coconut J. LIII (3), 15–23.
Gotoh N, Wada S. 2006. The importance of peroxide value in assessing food quality and food safety. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 473–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1229-4
Hoover R, Laurentius SF, Gunetileke KG. 1973. Spoilage of coconut oil purification and properties of a fungal lipase that attacks coconut oil. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 50, 64–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02671103
Huiling MU, Carl-Erik Hoy. 2004. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols-review. Progress in Lipid Res. 43, 105–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7827(03)00050-X
Indian Standard Specification for Coconut Oil (Third Revision IS 542) 2014. ICS No. 67.200 Method of test 13 Of Is 548 (Part 1).
Isbell TA, Abbott TP, Karlson KD. 1999. Oxidative stability index of vegetable oils in binary mixtures with meadow foam oil. Industrial Crops and Products 9, 115–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6690(98)00022-3
Laureles LR, Rodriguez FM, Reano CE, Santos GA, Laurena AC, Mendoza EMT. 2002. Variability in fatty acid and triglycerol composition of the oil of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) hybrids and their parental. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 1581–1586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf010832w
Marina AM, Che Man YB, Nazimah SAH, Amin I. 2009a. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 60, 114–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480802549127
Marina AM, Che Man YB, Nazimah, SAH, Amin I. 2009b. Chemical properties of virgin coconut oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 86, 301–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1351-1
Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. 2004. Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and invitro LDL oxidation. Clin. Biochem. 37, 830–835. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2004.04.010
Nigel B Perry, Elaine J Burgess, Leanne Glennie V. 2001. Echinacea Standardization: Analytical methods for phenolic compounds and typical levels in medicinal species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 1702–1706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf001331y
Petrauskaite V, De Greyt WF, Kellens MJ. 2000. Physical refining of coconut oil: effect of crude oil quality and deodorization conditions on neutral oil loss. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77, 581–586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-000-0093-6
Prakruthi Appaiah, Sunil L, Prasanth Kumar PK, Gopala Krishna AG. 2014. Composition of coconut testa, coconut kernel and its oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 91, 917–924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-014-2447-9
Robards K, Prenzler PD, Tucker G, Swatsitang P, Glover W. 1999. Phenolic compounds and their role in oxidative processes in fruits. Food Chem. 66, 401–436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00093-X
Rossell JB, King B, Downes MJ. 1985. Composition of oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 62, 221–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02541382
Sabir SM, Hayat I, Gardezi SDA. 2003. Estimation of sterols in edible fats and oils. Pakistan J. Nutr. 2, 178–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2003.178.181
Seneviratne KN, Sudarshana Dissanayake DM. 2008. Variation of phenolic content in coconut oil extracted by two conventional methods. Int. J. Food Sci Technol. 43, 597–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01493.x
Trautwein EA, Duchateau G, Lin Y, Melcnikov SM, Molhuizen H, Ntanios FY. 2003. Proposed mechanisms of cholesterollowering action of plant sterols. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 105, 171–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200390033
Valco M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin M, Mazur M, Telser J. 2007. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39, 44–84 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2006.07.001
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.