Genotype and year variability of the chemical composition of walnut oil of Moroccan seedlings from the high Atlas Mountains


  • O. Kodad Département d’Arboriculture. Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknès
  • G. Estopañán Unidad de Calidad y Seguridad Alimentaria, CITA de Aragón
  • T. Juan Unidad de Calidad y Seguridad Alimentaria, CITA de Aragón
  • R. Socias i Company Unidad de Fruticultura, CITA de Aragón
  • M. Sindic Unité de Technologie des Industries Agro-Alimentaires. ULg-Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech



Fatty acid profile, Genetic resources, Oil content, Protein content, Tocopherol content, Walnut


Protein and oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol concentration were determined for two years in the kernel of ten candidate walnut selections from the high Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Considerable variation between genotypes was found for all parameters. The ranges of protein content (11.58–14.5% of kernel dry weight, DW), oil content (54.4–67.48% of kernel DW), oleic (12.47–22.01% of total oil), linoleic (55.03–60.01%), linolenic (9.3–15.87%), palmitic (6.84–9.12%), and stearic (1.7–2.92%) acid percentages, γ-tocopherol (188.1–230.7 mg·kg-1 of oil), δ-tocopherol (23.3–43.4 mg·kg-1), and α-tocopherol (8.9–16.57 mg·kg-1) contents agreed with previous results obtained from other commercial walnut cultivars. The effect of year was significant for all the chemical components, except for oil content and palmitic acid percentage. Some genotypes showed high oil contents and consistently high values of γ-tocopherol in both years of study. The introduction of these genotypes as new cultivars by vegetative propagation may result in a an increase in quality of the walnuts from the high Atlas Mountains of Morocco, and as a seed source for forest walnut propagation in the same region.


Download data is not yet available.


Abbey M, Noaks M, Belling GB, Nestel PJ. 1994. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 59, 995–999. PMid:8172107

Amaral JS, Alves RM, Seabra RM, Oliveira BPP. 2005. Vitamin E composition of walnuts (Juglansregia L.): A 3-year comparative study of different cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 5467–5472. PMid:15969535

Amaral JS, Casal S, Pereira JA, Seabra RM, Oliveira BPP. 2003. Determination of sterol and fatty acid compositions, oxidative stability, and nutritional value of six walnut (Juglansregia L.) cultivars grown in Portugal. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 7698–7702. PMid:14664531

AOAC. 1995. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis 16th ed. Horwitz William: Washington DC.

AOCS. 1973. Method Ce 2-66. In: Official and Tentative Methods of the American Oil Chemist's Society, 3rd Ed., Champaigne, IL.

Bada JC, León-Camacho M, Prieto M, Pocovi P, Alonso L. 2010. Characterization of walnut oils (Juglansregia L.) from Asturias, Spain. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87, 1469–1474.

Callaham RZ. 1994. Provenance research: investigation of genetic diversity associated with geography. Unasylva 18, 40–50.

Chenevard D, Frossard JS, Lacointe A. 1994. Lipid utilisation and carbohydrate repartition during germination of English walnut (Juglansregia). Ann. Forest Sci. 51, 373–379.

Crews C, Hough P, Godward J, Brereton P, Lees M, Guiet S, Winkelmann W. 2005. Study of the main constituents of some authentic walnut oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 4853–4860. PMid:15941326

Dandekar AM, Leslie CA, McGranahan GH. 2005. Juglansregia walnut. In: Litz RE (Ed.) Biotechnology of Fruit and Nut Crops, CABI Publ., Oxfordshire, UK, 307–323.

Germain E. 1992. Le noyer. In: Gallais A, Bannerot H (Eds.) Amilioration des espaces v.g.tales cultives: objectifs et criteres de selection, INRA, Paris, 620–632.

Hemery GE. 2008. Forest management and silvicultural responses to projected impacts on European broadleaved trees and forest. Int. Forest. Rev. 10, 591–607.

Jensen PN, S.rensen G, Engelsen SB, Bertelsen G. 2001. Evaluation of quality changes in walnut kernels (Juglansregia L.) by Vis/ NIR spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 5790–5796. PMid:11743765

Lansari A, El Hassani A, Nabil D, Germain E. 2001. Preliminary results on walnut germplasm in Morocco. Acta Hortic. 544, 27–35.

Leslie CA, McGranahan GH. 1998. The origin of the walnut. In: Ramos DE (Ed.) Walnut Production Manual, Univ. California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publ. 3373,3–7.

López-Ortiz C, Prats-Moya MS, Sanahuja S, Maestre-Pérez AB, Grané-Teruel N, Martín-Carratal. ML. 2008. Comparative study of tocopherol homologue content in four almond oil cultivars during two consecutive years. J. Food Comp. Anal. 21, 144–151.

Malvolti ME, Pollegioni P, Mapelli S, Cannata F. 2010. Research of Juglansregia provenances by molecular, morphological and biochemical markers: a case study in Italy. Biorem. Biodiv. Bioavail. 4, 84–92.

Maranz S, Wiesman Z. 2004. Influence of climate on the tocopherol content of shea butter. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 2934–2937. PMid:15137838

Martinez ML, Maestri DM. 2008. Oil chemical variation in walnut (Juglansregia L.) genotypes grown in Argentina. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 110, 1183–1189.

Martinez ML, Miguel AM, Maestri DM. 2006. Varietal and crop year effects on lipid composition of walnut (Juglansregia) genotypes. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 791–796.

Mensink RP, Katan MB. 1989. Effect of a diet enriched with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acid on the levels of low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy women and men. N. Eng. J. Med. 321, 436–441. PMid:2761578

Munn.-Bosch S, Alegre L. 2002. The function of tocopherols and tocotrienols in plants. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 21, 31–57.

Naito Y, Shimozawa M, Kuroda M, Nakabe N, Manabe H, Katada K, Kokura S, Ichokawa H, Yosida N, Noguchi N, Yoshikawa T. 2005. Tocotrienols reduce 25-hydroxycholesterol induced monocyte-endothelial cell interaction by inhibiting the surface expression of adhesion molecules. Atherosclerosis 180, 19–25. PMid:15823271

Reische DW, Lillard DA, Eitenmiller RR. 1998. Antioxidants. In: Akoh CC, Min DB (Eds.) Food Lipids. Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology. Dekker: New York, 423–448.

Rennie BD, Tanner JW. 1989. Fatty acid composition of oil from soybean seeds grown at extreme temperature. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 66, 1622–1624.

SAS Institute, 2000. SAS User's Guide. SAS Inst., Cary, NC, USA.

Savage GP, Dutta PC, McNeil DL. 1999. Fatty acid and tocopherol contents and oxidative stability of walnut oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 7, 1059–1063.

Verardo V, Bendini A, Cerretani L, Malaguti D, Cozzolino E, Caboni MF. 2009. Cappillary gas chromatography analysis of lipid composition and evaluation of phenolic compound by micellar electrokinetic chromatography in Italian walnut (Juglansregia L.): irrigation and fertilization influence. J. Food Qual. 32, 262–281.

Verardo V, Riciputi Y, Sorrenti G, Ornaghi P, Marangoni B, Caboni MF. 2013. Effect of nitrogen fertilisation rates on the content of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and phenolic compounds, and on the oxidative stability of walnuts. LWT- Food Sci. Technol. 50, 732–738.



How to Cite

Kodad O, Estopañán G, Juan T, Socias i Company R, Sindic M. Genotype and year variability of the chemical composition of walnut oil of Moroccan seedlings from the high Atlas Mountains. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2016Mar.31 [cited 2022Dec.7];67(1):e116. Available from:




Most read articles by the same author(s)