Genotype and year variability of the chemical composition of walnut oil of Moroccan seedlings from the high Atlas Mountains
Keywords:Fatty acid profile, Genetic resources, Oil content, Protein content, Tocopherol content, Walnut
Protein and oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol concentration were determined for two years in the kernel of ten candidate walnut selections from the high Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Considerable variation between genotypes was found for all parameters. The ranges of protein content (11.58–14.5% of kernel dry weight, DW), oil content (54.4–67.48% of kernel DW), oleic (12.47–22.01% of total oil), linoleic (55.03–60.01%), linolenic (9.3–15.87%), palmitic (6.84–9.12%), and stearic (1.7–2.92%) acid percentages, γ-tocopherol (188.1–230.7 mg·kg-1 of oil), δ-tocopherol (23.3–43.4 mg·kg-1), and α-tocopherol (8.9–16.57 mg·kg-1) contents agreed with previous results obtained from other commercial walnut cultivars. The effect of year was significant for all the chemical components, except for oil content and palmitic acid percentage. Some genotypes showed high oil contents and consistently high values of γ-tocopherol in both years of study. The introduction of these genotypes as new cultivars by vegetative propagation may result in a an increase in quality of the walnuts from the high Atlas Mountains of Morocco, and as a seed source for forest walnut propagation in the same region.
Abbey M, Noaks M, Belling GB, Nestel PJ. 1994. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 59, 995–999. PMid:8172107
Amaral JS, Alves RM, Seabra RM, Oliveira BPP. 2005. Vitamin E composition of walnuts (Juglansregia L.): A 3-year comparative study of different cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 5467–5472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf050342u PMid:15969535
Amaral JS, Casal S, Pereira JA, Seabra RM, Oliveira BPP. 2003. Determination of sterol and fatty acid compositions, oxidative stability, and nutritional value of six walnut (Juglansregia L.) cultivars grown in Portugal. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 7698–7702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf030451d PMid:14664531
AOAC. 1995. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis 16th ed. Horwitz William: Washington DC.
AOCS. 1973. Method Ce 2-66. In: Official and Tentative Methods of the American Oil Chemist's Society, 3rd Ed., Champaigne, IL.
Bada JC, León-Camacho M, Prieto M, Pocovi P, Alonso L. 2010. Characterization of walnut oils (Juglansregia L.) from Asturias, Spain. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87, 1469–1474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1629-3
Callaham RZ. 1994. Provenance research: investigation of genetic diversity associated with geography. Unasylva 18, 40–50.
Chenevard D, Frossard JS, Lacointe A. 1994. Lipid utilisation and carbohydrate repartition during germination of English walnut (Juglansregia). Ann. Forest Sci. 51, 373–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19940403
Crews C, Hough P, Godward J, Brereton P, Lees M, Guiet S, Winkelmann W. 2005. Study of the main constituents of some authentic walnut oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 4853–4860. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0478354 PMid:15941326
Dandekar AM, Leslie CA, McGranahan GH. 2005. Juglansregia walnut. In: Litz RE (Ed.) Biotechnology of Fruit and Nut Crops, CABI Publ., Oxfordshire, UK, 307–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851996622.0307
Germain E. 1992. Le noyer. In: Gallais A, Bannerot H (Eds.) Amilioration des espaces v.g.tales cultives: objectifs et criteres de selection, INRA, Paris, 620–632.
Hemery GE. 2008. Forest management and silvicultural responses to projected impacts on European broadleaved trees and forest. Int. Forest. Rev. 10, 591–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1505/ifor.10.4.591
Jensen PN, S.rensen G, Engelsen SB, Bertelsen G. 2001. Evaluation of quality changes in walnut kernels (Juglansregia L.) by Vis/ NIR spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 5790–5796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf010509t PMid:11743765
Lansari A, El Hassani A, Nabil D, Germain E. 2001. Preliminary results on walnut germplasm in Morocco. Acta Hortic. 544, 27–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.544.1
Leslie CA, McGranahan GH. 1998. The origin of the walnut. In: Ramos DE (Ed.) Walnut Production Manual, Univ. California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publ. 3373,3–7.
López-Ortiz C, Prats-Moya MS, Sanahuja S, Maestre-Pérez AB, Grané-Teruel N, Martín-Carratal. ML. 2008. Comparative study of tocopherol homologue content in four almond oil cultivars during two consecutive years. J. Food Comp. Anal. 21, 144–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2007.09.004
Malvolti ME, Pollegioni P, Mapelli S, Cannata F. 2010. Research of Juglansregia provenances by molecular, morphological and biochemical markers: a case study in Italy. Biorem. Biodiv. Bioavail. 4, 84–92.
Maranz S, Wiesman Z. 2004. Influence of climate on the tocopherol content of shea butter. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 2934–2937. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf035194r PMid:15137838
Martinez ML, Maestri DM. 2008. Oil chemical variation in walnut (Juglansregia L.) genotypes grown in Argentina. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 110, 1183–1189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200800121
Martinez ML, Miguel AM, Maestri DM. 2006. Varietal and crop year effects on lipid composition of walnut (Juglansregia) genotypes. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 791–796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-5016-z
Mensink RP, Katan MB. 1989. Effect of a diet enriched with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acid on the levels of low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy women and men. N. Eng. J. Med. 321, 436–441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198908173210705 PMid:2761578
Munn.-Bosch S, Alegre L. 2002. The function of tocopherols and tocotrienols in plants. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 21, 31–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0735-260291044179
Naito Y, Shimozawa M, Kuroda M, Nakabe N, Manabe H, Katada K, Kokura S, Ichokawa H, Yosida N, Noguchi N, Yoshikawa T. 2005. Tocotrienols reduce 25-hydroxycholesterol induced monocyte-endothelial cell interaction by inhibiting the surface expression of adhesion molecules. Atherosclerosis 180, 19–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.11.017 PMid:15823271
Reische DW, Lillard DA, Eitenmiller RR. 1998. Antioxidants. In: Akoh CC, Min DB (Eds.) Food Lipids. Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology. Dekker: New York, 423–448.
Rennie BD, Tanner JW. 1989. Fatty acid composition of oil from soybean seeds grown at extreme temperature. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 66, 1622–1624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02636189
SAS Institute, 2000. SAS User's Guide. SAS Inst., Cary, NC, USA.
Savage GP, Dutta PC, McNeil DL. 1999. Fatty acid and tocopherol contents and oxidative stability of walnut oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 7, 1059–1063.
Verardo V, Bendini A, Cerretani L, Malaguti D, Cozzolino E, Caboni MF. 2009. Cappillary gas chromatography analysis of lipid composition and evaluation of phenolic compound by micellar electrokinetic chromatography in Italian walnut (Juglansregia L.): irrigation and fertilization influence. J. Food Qual. 32, 262–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2009.00249.x
Verardo V, Riciputi Y, Sorrenti G, Ornaghi P, Marangoni B, Caboni MF. 2013. Effect of nitrogen fertilisation rates on the content of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and phenolic compounds, and on the oxidative stability of walnuts. LWT- Food Sci. Technol. 50, 732–738.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2016 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.