Stability and volatile oxidation compounds of grape seed, flax seed and black cumin seed cold-pressed oils as affected by thermal oxidation
Keywords:Linum usitatissimum, Nigella sativa, Quality control, SPME–GC/MS, Vegetable oils, Vitis vinifera, Volatile oxidation compounds
The old-pressed oils (CPO) from grape seeds (GSO), flax seeds (FSO) and black cumin seeds (BSO) were analyzed for their fatty acid profiles, tocopherols, total phenolics, bioactives and phenolic compositions. The stability of CPO under thermal oxidation conditions was evaluated. The main fatty acid in FSO was linolenic acid (56.5% of total fatty acids); while GSO and BSO were rich in linoleic acid, which accounted for 66.8 and 56.8%, respectively. GSO was rich in ?-tocopherol (123.0 mg/kg), while ?-tocopherol was a prevalent isomer in FSO and BSO (137.9 and 128.9 mg/kg, respectively). The total phenolic contents in the oils ranged from 554 mg GAE/kg oil (FSO) to 1140 mg GAE/kg oil (BSO). Luteolin, dihydroquercetin and benzoic acids were the dominant bioactives and phenolics in FSO, GSO and BSO, respectively. Based on the oxidative stability index (OSI) value, BSO showed the highest value (6.14 h) among the other oils. The oxidative stability of FSO and BSO were higher than GSO according to peroxide value (PV) and conjugated diene (CD) values of the oils during storage at 60 °C. Hexanal, 2,4-heptadienal and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal were the major volatile oxidation compounds (VOC) in FSO. Hexanal and (E)-2-heptanal were the main identified VOC in the GSO and BSO under the same oxidation conditions.
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