A novel bleaching approach: Microwave assisted sunflower oil bleaching and optimization





Bleaching, Bleaching efficiency, Microwave, Optimization, Sunflower seed oil


The factors affecting the microwave bleaching of sunflower oil and the interaction between them were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology using a three-factor five-level central composite rotatable design. Microwave power, time and the amount of bleaching clay were selected as independent variables studied in the range of 70-120 W, 2-15 min, and 0.01-0.5%. The dependent variables that measure the bleaching efficiency and oil quality were evaluated as hue angle, chroma and totox value. Optimization was carried out by minimizing totox and chroma and maximizing hue angle. Hue angle, chroma and totox were found as 96.91, 37.66 and 23.31 under optimal conditions. Optimal microwave bleaching was successfully performed by using less bleaching clay (0.4%) and a shorter time (8 min) compared to the current industrial application without any adverse effect on oil quality. Hence, microwave bleaching is thought to be an alternative method for the bleaching of edible oils.


Download data is not yet available.


AOCS. 1998. In Firestone D. (Ed.), Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. AOCS Press, Champaign, USA.

Abedi E, Sahari MA, Barzegar M, Azizi MH. 2015. Optimisation of soya bean oil bleaching by ultrasonic processing and investigate the physico-chemical properties of bleached soya bean oil. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 50, 857-863.

Abedi E, Sahari MA, Barzegar M, Azizi MH. 2016. Designing of high voltage electric field for soybean and sunflower oil bleaching. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. 36, 173-180.

Asgari S, Sahari MA, Barzegar M. 2017. Practical modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted bleaching of olive oil using hybrid artificial neural network-genetic algorithm technique. Comput. Electron. Agric. 140, 422-432.

Bonveh JS, Torrent MS, Coll FV. 2001. A laboratory study of the bleaching process in Stigmasta-3,5-diene concentration in olive oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78, 305-10.

Boukerroui A, Ouali MS. 2002. Edible oil bleaching with a bentonite activated by micro wave irradiation. Annales de Chimie 27, 73-81.

Boroujeni S, Ghavami M, Piravi Vanak Z, Ghasemi Pirbalouti A. 2020. Optimization of sunflower oil bleaching parameters: using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Food Sci. Tech-Brazil 40, 322-330.

Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL. 2017. Optimization of bleaching parameters in refining process of kenaf seed oil with a central composite design model. J. Food Sci. 82, 1622-1630.

Foletto EL, Paz DS, Gündel A. 2013. Acid-activation assisted by microwave of a Brazilian bentonite and its activity in the bleaching of soybean oil. Appl. Clay Sci. 83, 63-67.

Garcia-Moreno PJ, Guadix A, Gómez-Robledo L, Melgosa M, Guadix EM. 2013. Optimization of bleaching conditions for sardine oil. J. Food Eng. 116, 606-612.

Gasemloo S, Khosravi M, Sohrabi MR, Dastmalchi S, Gharbani P. 2019. Response surface methodology (RSM) modeling to improve removal of Cr (VI) ions from tannery wastewater using sulfated carboxymethyl cellulose nanofilter. J. Clean. Prod. 208, 736-742.

Gjorgjevich MP, Velevska J, Najdoski M. 2012. Effect of microwave radiation on dielectric behavior of two vegetable oils. J. Phys. Sci. 2, 427-433.

Gupta M. 2017. Practical guide to vegetable oil processing. Cambridge.

Hymore FK. 1996. Effects of some additives on the performance of acid activated clays in the bleaching of palm oil. Appl. Clay Sci. 10, 379-385.

İçyer NC, Durak MZ. 2018. Ultrasound-assisted bleaching of canola oil: Improve the bleaching process by central composite design. LWT-Food Sci. Tech. 97, 640-647.

Islam MA, Tan YL, Islam MA, Romić M, Hameed BH. 2018. Chitosan-bleaching earth clay composite as an efficient adsorbent for carbon dioxide adsorption: Process optimization. Colloids and Surfaces A. Colloids Surf. a Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 554, 9-15.

Jahouach-Rabai W, Trabelsi M, Van Hoed V, Adams A, Verhé De Kimpe N, Frikha MH. 2008. Influence of bleaching by ultrasound on fatty acids and minor compounds of olive oil. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds (by SPME coupled to GC/MS). Ultrason Sonochem. 15, 590-597.

Li JW, Zhu LZ, Cai WJ. 2007. Sorption characteristics of surfactant onto bentonite using microwave irradiation. Huan Jing Ke Xue 28, 2642-2645.

Marrakchi F, Kriaa K, Hadrich B, Kechaou N. 2015. Experimental investigation of processing parameters and effects of degumming, neutralization and bleaching on lampante virgin olive oil’s quality. Food Bioprod. Process. 94, 124-135.

Meda V, Orsat V, Raghavan V. 2017. Microwave heating and the dielectric properties of foods. Regier M, Knoerzer K, SchubertIn H (Eds), The microwave processing of foods. Woodhead Publishing, 23-43.

Minguez-Mosquera MI, Rejano-Navarro L, Gandul-Rojas B, Sanchez-Gomez AH, Garrido-Fernandez J. 1991. Color-pigment correlation in virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem.’ Soc. 68, 332-336.

Mustafa AM, Abusabah EK. 2019. Using of Activated Jurdiga for Bleaching of Sunflower Edible Oils. Gezira-J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 13, 2.

Salawudeen TO, Arinkoola AO, Jimoh MO, Akinwande BA. 2014. Clay characterization and optimization of bleaching parameters for palm kernel oil using alkaline activated clays. J. Minerals Materials Character. Eng. 2, 586.

Schiffmann RF. 2014. Microwave and dielectric drying. Mujumbar A.S (Eds), Handbook of industrial drying. New York: CRC press, 286-306.

Shahidi F, Wanasundara PKJPD, Wanasundara UN. 1997. Changes in edible fats and oils during processing. J. Food Lipids. 4, 199-231.

Skevin D, Domijan T, Kraljic K, Gajdos Kljusuric J, Nederal S, Obranovic M. 2012. Optimization of bleaching parameters for soybean oil. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 50, 199-207.

Su D, Xiao T, Gu D, Cao Y, Jin Y, Zhang W, Wu T. 2013. Ultrasonic bleaching of rapeseed oil: effects of bleaching conditions and underlying mechanisms. J. Food Eng. 117, 8-13.

Thompson LH, Doraiswamy LK. 1999. Sonochemistry: science and engineering. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 1215-1249.

Torrealba-Meléndez R, Sosa-Morales ME, Olvera-Cervantes JL, Corona-Chávez A. 2015. Dielectric properties of cereals at frequencies useful for processes with microwave heating. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52, 8403-8409.

Zhang M, Tang J, Mujumdar AS, Wang S. 2006. Trends in microwave-related drying of fruits and vegetables. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17, 524-534.

Zschau W. 2000. Bleaching. O’Brien, R.D., Farr, W.E., Wan P.J. (Eds), Introduction to fats and oils technology. USA: AOCS Press, 158-178.

Zschau W. 2001. Bleaching of edible fats and oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 103, 505-551.



How to Cite

Seçilmiş Ş. S, Koçak Yanık D, Fadıloğlu S, Göğüş F. A novel bleaching approach: Microwave assisted sunflower oil bleaching and optimization. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2022Jan.12 [cited 2022Jan.19];72(4):e437. Available from: https://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/view/1905