Grasas y Aceites, Vol 64, No 1 (2013)

Epoxidation of methyl esters derived from Jatropha oil: An optimization study


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.084612

M. Mushtaq
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Technologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

Isa M. Tan
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Technologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

M. Nadeem
Subsurface Technology, PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd (PRSB), Malaysia

C. Devi
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Technologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

S. Y. C. Lee
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Technologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

M. Sagir
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Technologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

U. Rashid
Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

Abstract


The optimization of the epoxidation reaction of methyl esters obtained from Jatropha oil was appraised. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the experimental design. Four reaction variables namely hydrogen peroxide/ C=C mole ratio, formic acid/C=C mole ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were evaluated. The optimum epoxidation conditions calculated by the quadratic model were 3.12 moles of hydrogen peroxide/C=C moles, 0.96 moles of formic acid/C=C moles, a reaction temperature of 70.0 °C and a reaction time of 277 minutes. A reaction optimized by the proposed process parameters provided a yield of 92.89 ± 1.29 wt.% with relatively improved reaction time. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and reaction temperature were found to be the most significant variables while reaction temperature and hydrogen peroxide showed strong interactions. The epoxidized methyl esters were analyzed using FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR techniques. This study suggested relatively higher molar ratio of formic acid required than was proposed in the literature.

Keywords


Characterization; Epoxidised Jatropha oil; Optimization; Response surface methodology

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