An advanced aqueous method of recovering pumpkin seed kernel oils and de-oiled meal: Optimization and comparison with other methods




Optimizing parameters, Comparing methods, Water, Bioactive compounds, Green technology


The optimal process conditions of the advanced aqueous method for recovering oil and de-oiled meal from pumpkin seed kernels were: baking the kernels at 110 °C for 1 min, grinding them to pass through a sieve of 150 μm pore size, adding 1.60 ml brine to 10.00 g ground kernels, stirring for 30 min at 30 °C, centrifuging at 4000 r/min for 30 min and cold-pressing the residue from centrifugation. This method recovered > 94% oil. Its oil recovery rate was comparable to that of solvent extraction and higher than that of enzyme-assisted aqueous method or hot-pressing. It recovered edible oil with higher quality and level of coenzyme Q10, tocopherols, carotenoids, total phytosterols and squalene as compared to solvent extraction or hot-pressing and requirements of China’s national standard. It is superior to enzyme-assisted aqueous method or hot-pressing for recovering de-oiled meal which is suitable for making texturized protein.


Download data is not yet available.


Asgar MA, Fazilah A, Huda N, Bhat R, Karim AA. 2010. Nonmeat protein alternatives as meat extenders and meat analogs. Compreh. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 9, 513-529.

Chinese National Standard Analytical Methods, Jointly Published by General Administration of Quality Supervision. Inspection and Quarantine of PRC and Standardization Administration of PRC.

CNS. LS/T3250-2017, Pumpkin seed oil, published by State Administration of Grain, PRC.

Crowea TW, Johnson LA. 2001. Twin-screw extrusion texturization of extruded-expelled soybean flour. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78, 781-786.

DeFrates KG, Moore R, Borgesi J, Lin G, Mulderig T, Beachley V, Hu X. 2018. Protein-based fiber materials in medicine: A Review. Nanomat. 8 (7), 457.

Dickinson E. 2006. Interfacial particles in food emulsions and foams. In B. P. Binks (Ed.), Colloidal particles at liquid interfaces (pp. 298-327). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Environmental Protection Agency. 1999. Integrated risk information system (IRIS) on n-hexane. Washington DC: National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development.

Fu S, Wu W. 2019. Optimization of conditions for producing high quality oil and deoiled meal from almond seeds by water. J. Food Proc. Preserv. 43 (8), e14050.

Jiao J, Li Z, Gai Q, Li X, Wei F, Fu Y, Ma W. 2014. Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from pumpkin seeds and evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions and antioxidant activities. Food Chem. 147, 17-24.

Hu W, Zou Y. 2013. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction processing of oil from pumpkin seed by response surface methodology. Sci. Technol. Food Ind. 34 (3), 277-280.

Konopka I, Roszkowska B, Czaplicki S, Tańska M. 2016. Optimization of pumpkin oil recovery by using aqueous enzymatic extraction and comparison of the quality of the obtained oil with the quality of cold-pressed oil. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 54 (4), 413-420.

Kumar A, Sharma A, Upadhyaya KC. 2016. Vegetable oil: Nutritional and industrial perspective. Curr. Genom. 17 (3), 230-240.

Li X, Li Z, Wang X, Han J, Zhang B, Fu Y, Zhao C. 2016. Application of cavitation system to accelerate aqueous enzymatic extraction of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo L. and evaluation of hypoglycemic effect. Food Chem. 212, 403-410.

LS/T6120-2017, Inspection of grain and oils-Determination of squalene in vegetable oil-Gas chromatography, published by State Administration of Grain, PRC.

Lv M, Wu W. 2019a. Development of a new aqueous procedure for efficiently extracting high quality Camellia oleifera oil. Ind. Crop. Prod. 138, 111583.

Lv M, Wu W. 2019b. An advanced aqueous method of extracting rapeseed oil with high quality. J. Food Proc. Engin. 42, e12957.

Lv M, Wu W. 2020. Optimization of an improved aqueous method for production of high quality white sesame oil and de-oiled meal. Grasas Aceites 71 (2), e349.

Ma Y, Shi L, Liu Y, Lu Q. 2017. Effects of neutralization, decoloration, and deodorization on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during laboratory-scale oil refining process. J. Chem. 2017, Article ID 7824761, 9 pages.

OECD/FAO. 2020. OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2020-2029. FAO, Rome/OECD Publishing, Paris.

Stenton M, Houghton JA, Kapsali V, Blackburn RS. 2021. The potential for regenerated protein fibres within a circular economy: Lessons from the past can inform sustainable innovation in the textiles industry. Sustain. 13, 2328.

Tu J, Wu W. 2019a. Establishment of an aqueous method of extracting soy oils assisted by adding free oil. Grasas Aceites 70 (3), e313.

Tu J, Wu W. 2019b. An advanced pilot method of separating peanut oils with high quality based on aqueous extraction. Sep. Sci. Technol. 55 (4), 739-751.

Tu J, Wu W, Yang J, Li J, Ma X. 2017. A method of producing edible oils with high quality by water. J. Food Proc. Preserv. 41, e13280.

Veronezi CM, Jorge N. 2012. Bioactive compounds in lipid fractions of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) seeds for use in food. J. Food Sci. 77 (6), C653-C657.

Wong ML, Timms RE, Goh EM. 1988. Colorimetric determination of total tocopherols in palm oil, olein and stearin. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 65, 258-261.

Yusoff MM, Gordon M, Niranjan K. 2014. Aqueous enzyme assisted oil extraction from oilseeds and emulsion de-emulsifying methods: a review. Trend. Food Sci. Technol. 41 (1), 60-82.

Zhang G, Yang H, Yue X, Liu Z, Xu C. 2018. Study on enzymatic combined chemical demulsification process of emulsion from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of pumpkin seed oil. Food Mach. 34 (10), 139-144, 178.



How to Cite

Fu J, Wu W. An advanced aqueous method of recovering pumpkin seed kernel oils and de-oiled meal: Optimization and comparison with other methods. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2022Jun.14 [cited 2022Jul.5];73(2):e459. Available from: