Effect of physical refining on chemical and sensory quality of coconut oil
Keywords:Coconut oil, Physical refining, Sensory Evaluation, Sterols, Tocopherols
The effect of the physical refining stages (degumming, bleaching and deodorization) on some coconut oil quality and sensory parameters was evaluated. The fatty acid profile was within the range reported for this oil. The free fatty acids level (FFA) and the moisture content were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in all stages from 2.37 to 0.66% and from 0.67% to 0.1% respectively. Peroxide value (PV) was not detected after bleaching, but increased to 0.67 mEq/kg after deodorization. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in p-anisidine value (AV). The tocopherols content was lower than the reported for this oil (6.57 ppm).The sterol level (899 ppm) was similar to the level reported for this oil. Both tocopherols and sterols content were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in all stages of refining, but the major losses were produced during bleaching. The coconut oil was evaluated using a scaling sensory test. The sensory quality was improved by the refining process. The deodorized oil got the best sensory notes.
Dudrow FA. 1983. Deodorization of edible oil. J. of Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60, 272-274. doi:10.1007/BF02543499
Enig M.G. (1995). Health and nutritional benefits from coconut oil and its advantages over competing oils. Indian Coconut Journal. 5, 2-10.
Erickson D.R. 1995. Practical handbook of soybean processing and utilization. AOCS Press. Champaign, IL.
FAO, 2008. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, http://faostat.fao.org
Ferrari RA, Schutte E, Esteves W, Brühl L, Mukherjee KD. 1996. Minor constituents of vegetable oils during industrial processing. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73, 587-591. doi:10.1007/BF02518112
Foster A, Harper AJ. 1983. Physical refining. J of Am Oil Chem. Soc. 60, 265-271 doi:10.1007/BF02543498
Frandsen, SS, 1996. Distillate Information, Henkel Supplier Brochure, Henkel Corporation, LaGrange, IL, 2-5.
Hamilton RJ. 1998. Lipids analysis in oils and fats. Blackie Academic & Professional. Liverpool, UK.
Jung MY, Yoon SH, Min DB. 1989. Effects of processing steps on the content of minor compounds and oxidation of soybean oil. J. Am. Oil Chem Soc. 66: 118-120. doi:10.1007/BF02661798
Kamal-Eldin A, Appelqvist L. 1996. The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Lipids. 31, 671-701. doi:10.1007/BF02522884 PMid:8827691
Mclntyre BS, Briski KP, Tirmenstein MA, Fariss MW, Gapo A, Sylvester PW. 2000. Antiprolifertive and apoptotic effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on normal mouse mammary epithelial cells. Lipid 35, 171-180. doi:10.1007/BF02664767 PMid:10757548
Medina-Juárez LA, Gámez-Meza N, Ortega-García J, Noriega-Rodriguez JA, Angulo-Guerrero O. 2000. Trans fatty acid composition and tocopherols content in vegetable oils produced in Mexico. J. of Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77, 721-724. doi:10.1007/s11746-000-0116-3
Normén L, Dutta P, Lia A, Andersson H. 2000. Soy sterol esters and ?-sitostanol ester as inhibitor of cholesterol absorption in human small bowel. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 908-913.
Oliart RM, Torres-Márquez ME, Badillo A, Angulo GO. 1998. Effects of dietary fatty acids on sucrose induced cardiovascular syndrome rat model. 89th AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo, Chicago Ill.
Ortega-García J, Gámez-Meza N, Noriega-Rodriguez J A, Dennis-Quiñonez O, García-Galindo HS, Angulo-Guerrero JO, Medina-Juárez LA. 2006. Refining of high oleic safflower oil: Effect on the sterols and tocopherols content. Eur Food Res Technol, 223, 775-779. doi:10.1007/s00217-006-0267-3
Packer L, Fuchs J. 1993. Vitamin E in health and disease. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York. pp. 276-280.
Pehowich DJ, Gomes AV, Barnes JA. 2000. Fatty acid composition and possible health effects of coconut constituents. West Indian Med J. 49,128-33.
Petrauskaité V, De Grey WF, Kellens MJ. 2000. Physical refining of coconut oil: Effect of crude oil quality and deodorization conditions on neutral oil loss. J. Am. Chem. Oil Soc. 77, 582-586.
Rao R, Lokesh BR. 2003. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter, Lipids, 38, 913-918. doi:10.1007/s11745-003-1144-3 PMid:14584598
Rossi M, Gianazza M, Alamprese C, Stanga F. 2001. Effect of bleaching and physical refining on color and minor components of palm oil. J. Am. Chem. Oil Soc. 78, 1051-1055. doi:10.1007/s11746-001-0387-8
Sanchez-Machado DI, Lopez-Hernandez J, Paseiro-Losada P, Lopez-Cervantes J. 2004. An HPLC method for the quantification of sterols in edible seaweeds. Biomed Chromatogr 18, 183-190. doi:10.1002/bmc.316 PMid:15103705
Stone H, Sidel J. 1999. Sensory Evaluation Practices. Ed. Academic Press. San Diego, Ca.
Verleyen TM, Forcades R, Verhe K, Dewettinck A, Huyghebaert W, De Greyt WF. 2002. Analysis of free and esterified sterols in vegetable oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 79, 117-122. doi:10.1007/s11746-002-0444-3
Vissers MN, Zock PL, Meijer GW. Katan MB. 2000. Effect of Plant Sterols from Rice Bran Oil and Triterpene alcohols from sheanut oil on serum lipoprotein concentrations in human. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72, 1510-1515.
Warner K, Michael-Eskin NA. 1995. Methods to asses quality and stability of oils and fat-containing foods. AOCS Press. Illinois, USA. Cap. 2,9.
Zschau W. 2000. Bleaching, en: O’Brien RD, Farr WE, Wan PJ. (Ed.), Introduction to Fats and Oils Technology, 2nd edn. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press, págs. 158–178.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2009 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.