The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs
Keywords:Atherogenic index, Cholesterol, Egg composition, Fatty acids, Hen-strain, Thrombogenic index
The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain.
Applegate E. 2000. Introduction: nutritional and functional roles of eggs in the diet. Journal of American College of Nutrition 19 (5 Suppl), 495S-498S.
Baucells MD, Crespo N, Barroeta AC, Lopez-Ferrer S, Grashorn MA. 2000. Incorporation of different polyunsaturated fatty acids into eggs.Poultry Science 79, 51-59.
Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 37, 911-917.
Combs GF, Helbacka NV. 1960. Studies with laying hens. I. Effect of dietary fat, protein levels and other variables in practical rations. Poultry Sciences 39, 271-279.
Connor SL, Gustafson JR, Artaud-Wild SB, Flawell DP, Classick-Kohn CJ, Hatcher LF, Connor WE 1986. The cholesterol/saturated-fat index: An indication of hypercholesterolemic and atherogenic potential of food. Lancet 1, 1229-1232. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)91384-X
Cores A, Vergara G, De Lorenzo C. 1995 Cholesterol levels in commercial eggs in Madrid (Spain) determined by an HPLC procedure, in Cerero R, (Ed) Egg and Egg Product Quality. Instituto de Investigación Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid, pp. 395- 403.
Chowdhury SE, Chowdhury SD, Smith TK. 2002. Effects of dietary garlic on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens. Poultry Science 81, 1856-1862.
Di Lorenzo A, Petroni ML, De Luca PP, Andreoli A, Moroni P, Jacopino L, Innocente J, Perriello G. 2001. Use of Quality control indices in moderately hypocaloric Mediterranean diet for treatment of obesity. Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolism 14, 181-188.
Elkin RG. 2006. Reducing shell egg cholesterol content. I. Overview, genetic approaches, and nutritional strategies.World’s Poultry Science Journal 62, 665-687. doi:10.1017/S0043933906001206
Garg ML, Wierzbicki AA, Thomson AB, Clandinin MT. 1988. Dietary cholesterol and/or n-3 fatty acid modulate delta-9 desaturase activity in rat liver microsomes. Biochemical and Biophysical Acta 962, 330-336.
Garg ML, Thomson ABR, Chandinin HT. 1990. Interactions of saturated, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate arachidonic acid metabolism. Journal of Lipid Research 31, 271-277.
Garg ML, Keelan M, Thomson ABR, Clandinin MT. 1992. Desaturation of linoleic acid in the small bowel is increased by short-term fasting and by dietary content of linoleic acid. Biochemical and Biophysical Acta 1126, 17-25.
Grobas S, Mendez J, De Blas C, Mateos GG. 1999. Laying hen productivity as affected by energy, supplemental fat, and linoleic acid concentration of the diet. Poultry Science 78, 1542-1551.
Grobas S, Mendez J, De Blas C, Mateos GG. 2001. Influence of source and percentage of fat added to diet on performance and fatty acid composition of egg yolks of two strains of laying hens. Poultry Science 80, 1171-1179.
Grynberg A. 2005. Hypertension prevention: from nutrients to (fortified) foods to dietary patterns. Focus on fatty acids. Journal of Human Hypertension 19, S25-S33. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001957 PMid:16302007
Hargis PS, Van Elswyk ME, Hargis BM. 1991. Dietary modification of yolk lipid with menhaden oil. Poultry Science 70, 874-883.
Ingr I, Simeonova J, Stavkova J, Petrovsky E, Dostal F. 1987. Cholesterol content in market hen eggs. Nahrung 31, 933-940. doi:10.1002/food.19870311002
IUPAC. 1987 Standard methods for analysis of oil, fats and derivatives, in Paquot C, Hatfenne A (Eds). 7th revised and enlarged edition. Blackwell Scientific, Publications Oxford, pp. 123-129.
Jiang Z, Sim JS. 1992. Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acidenriched chicken eggs on plasma and tissue cholesterol and fatty acid composition of rats. Lipids 27,279-284. doi:10.1007/BF02536476 PMid:1518385
Kuksis A. 1992. Yolk lipids. Biochemical and Biophysical Acta 25, 1124:205-222.
Leikin AI, Bremer RR. 1987. Cholesterol-induced microsomal changes modulate desaturase activities. Biochemical and Biophysical Acta, 922, 294-303.
Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Schaefer EJ. 1999. Effects of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels. New England Journal of Medicine 340, 1933-1940. doi:10.1056/NEJM199906243402501 PMid:10379016
Mensink RP, Katan MB. 1990. Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects. New England Journal of Medicine 323, 439-445.
Naber EC, Biggert MD. 1989. Pattern of lipogenesis in laying hens fed a high fat diet containing safflower oil. Journal of Nutrition 119, 690-695.
Pardio VT, Landin LA, Waliszewski KN, Perez-Gil F, Diaz L, Hernandez B. 2005. The effect of soybean soapstock on the quality parameters and fatty fat acid composition of hen egg yolk. Poultry Science 84,148- 157.
Peebles ED, Zumwatl CD, Doyle SM, Gerard PD, Latour MA, Boyle CR, Smith TW. 2000. Effects of breeder age and dietary fat source and level on broiler hatching egg characteristics.Poultry Science 79, 698- 704.
Sánchez-Muniz FJ. 2003. Lípidos, in García Arias MT, García Fernández MC (Eds) Nutrición y Dietética, Universidad de León. Spain, pp. 119-133.
Sánchez-Muniz FJ, García-Linares MC, García-Arias MT, Bastida S, Viejo J. 2003. Fat and protein from olive oilfried sardines interact to normalize serum lipoproteins and reduce liver lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats. Journal or Nutrition 133, 2302-2308
Summers JD, Slinger SJ, Anderson WJ. 1966. The effect of feeding various fats and fat by-products on the fatty acid and cholesterol of eggs. British Poultry Science 7, 127-134. doi:10.1080/00071666608415614 PMid:5959680
Szymczyk B, Pisulewski PM. 2003. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks. British Journal of Nutrition 90, 93-99. doi:10.1079/BJN2003873 PMid:12844380
Van Elswyk ME, Schake LS, Hargis PS. 1991. Evaluation of two extraction methods for the determination of egg yolk cholesterol. Poultry Science 70, 1258-1260.
Van Elswyk ME. 1997. Comparison of n-3 fatty acid sources in laying hen rations for improvement of whole egg nutritional quality: a review. British Journal of Nutrition 78 (Suppl. 1), S61-S69. doi:10.1079/BJN19970135
Vilchez C, Touchburn SP, Chavez ER, Chan CW. 1991. Effect of feeding palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids to Japanese quail hens (Coturnix coturnix japonica). 1. Reproductive performance and tissue fatty acids. Poultry Science 70, 2484-93
Vorlova L, Sieglova E, Karpiskova R, Kopriva V. 2001. Cholesterol content in eggs during the laying period. Acta Veterinaria Brno 70, 387-390.
Whitehead CC, Bowman AS, Griffin HD. 1991. The effects of dietary fat and bird age on the weights of egg components in the laying hen. British Poultry Science 32, 565-574. doi:10.1080/00071669108417381 PMid:1893267
Yang L, Huang Y, James AE, Lam LW, Chen ZY. 2002. Differential incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid isomers into egg yolk lipids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 4941-4946. doi:10.1021/jf020363d PMid:12166986
Ying JD, Shang XG, Li DF, Wang FL, Guan YF, Wang ZY. 2008. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers. Poultry Science 87, 284-290. doi:10.3382/ps.2007-00220 PMid:18212371
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2009 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.