Grasas y Aceites, Vol 63, No 4 (2012)

Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers


https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.047212

I. Ourrach
Université Hassan II, Morocco

M. Rada
Instituto de la Grasa-CSIC, Spain

M. C. Pérez-Camino
Instituto de la Grasa-CSIC, Spain

M. Benaissa
Université Hassan II, Morocco

Á. Guinda
Instituto de la Grasa-CSIC, Spain

Abstract


This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil.

Keywords


Adulteration; Argan oil; GC; HPLC; Olive oil; Sunflower oil

Full Text:


PDF

References


Belarbi-Benmahdi M, Khaldi D, Beghdad C, Gouzi H, Bendimerad N. 2009. Physicochemical and nutritional study of argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) in southwestern Algeria. Pigment Resin Technol. 38 (2), 96-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03699420910940581

Bortolomeazzi R, Berno P, Pizzale L, Conte LS. 2001. Sesquiterpene, alkene, and alkane hydrocarbons in virgin olive oils of different varieties and geographical origins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 3278-3283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf001271w PMid: 11453763

Bueno EO, Casas JS, García AM, González LG. 2005. Discriminating power of the hydrocarbon content from virgin olive oil of extremadura cultivars. J. Am. Oil Che. Soc. 82, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-005-1034-0

Cayuela JA, Rada M, Pérez-Camino MC, Benaissa M, Elamrani A, Guinda Á. 2008. Characterization of artisanally and semiautomatically extracted argan oils from Morocco. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 110, 1159-1166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200800146

Cert A, Lanzón A, Carelli AA, Albi T. 1994. Formation of 3,5-stigmastadiene in vegetable oils. Food Chem. 49, 287-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90173-2

Charrouf Z and Guillaume D. 2008. Review. Argan oil: Occurrence, composition and impact on human health. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 110, 632–636. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700220

Christy AA, Kasemsumran S, Du Y, Ozak Y. 2004. The detection and quantification of adulteration in olive oil by near infrared spectroscopy and chemonetrics. Anal. Sci. 20, 935-940. http://dx.doi.org/10.2116/analsci.20.935 PMid: 15228114

Díaz-Barradas MC, Zunzunegui M, Ain-Lhout F, Jáuregui J, Boutaleb S, Álvarez-Cansimo L, Esquivias M. 2010. Seasonal physicological responses of argania spinosa tree from mediterranean to semi-arid. Climate Plant Soil. 337, 217-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-010-0518-8

Dobarganes MC, Cert A, Dieffenbacher A. 1999. The determination of stigmastadienes in vegetable oils. Pure Appl. Chem. 71, 349-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/pac199971020349 European Union Commission 1991. COMMISSION REGULATION (EEC) Nº 2568/91 ANNEX X B. Preparation of the fatty acid methyl esters from olive oil and olive-pomace oil.

Gallardo-Guerrero L, Gandul-Rojas B, Roca M, Mínguez- Mosquera MI. 2005. Effects of storage on the original pigment profile of Spanish olive oils. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 82, 33-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-005-1039-8

Gandul-Rojas B, Cepero MR, Mínguez-Mosquera MI. 2000. Use of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment composition to determine authenticity of virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77, 853-858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-000-0136-z

Gonzálvez A, Armenta S, Guardia MDeLa. 2010. Adulteration detection of argan oil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Food Chem. 121, 878-886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.11.091

Guinda A, Lanzón A, Albi T. 1996. Differences in hydrocarbons of virgin olive oils obtained from several olive varieties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 1723-1726. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf950571o

Guinda A, Rada M, Delgado T, Castellano JM. 2011. Pentacyclic triterpenic acids from arganda spinosa. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 113, 231-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201000342

Harhar H, Gharby S, Kartah B, Elmonfalouti H, Guillaume D, Charrouf Z. 2011. Influence of argan kernel roasting time on virgin argan oil composition and oxidative stability. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 66, 163-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-011-0220-x PMid: 21442181

Hilali H, Charrouf Z, Soulhi A, Hachimi L, Guillaume D. 2007. Detection of argan oil adulteration using quantitative campesterol GC-analysis. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 84, 761-764. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1084-y

Hilali M, Charrouf Z, El Aziz Soulhi A, Hachimi L, Guillaume D. 2005. Influence of origin and extraction method on argan oil physico-chemical characteristics and composition. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 2081- 2087. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf040290t PMid: 15769139

Hornero-Méndez D, Gandul-Rojas B, Minguez-Mosquera MI. 2005. Routine and sensitive SPE-HPLC method for quantitative determination of pheophytin a and pyropheophytin a in olive oils. Food Res International 38, 1067-1072. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2005.02.022

Khallouki F, Younos C, Soulimani R, Oster T, Charrouf Z, Spieglehalder B, Batsch H, Owen RW. 2003. Consumption of argan oil (Morocco) with its unique profile of fatty acids, squalene, sterols, tocopherols and phenolic antioxidants should confer valuable cancer chemopreventive effects. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 12, 67-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008469-200302000-00011 PMid: 12548113

Lanzón A, Albi T, Cert A, Gracián J. 1994. The hydrocarbon fraction of virgin olive oil and changes resulting from refining. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71, 285-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02638054

Lanzón A, Cert A, Albi T. 1989. Detección de la presencia de aceite de oliva refinado en el aceite de oliva virgen. Grasas Aceites. 40, 385-388.

Lybbert TJ, Barrett CB, Narjisse H. 2002. Market-based conservation and local benefits: the case of argan oil in Morocco. Ecological Economics 41,125–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00020-4

Marfil R, Cabrera-Vique C, Giménez R, Bouzas PR, Martínez O, Sánchez JA. 2008. Metal content and physicochemical parameters used as quality criteria in virgin argan oil: Influence of the extraction method. J. Agric. Food Chem 56, 7279–7284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf801002w PMid: 18662006

Moreda W, Perez-Camino MC, Cert A. 2001. Gas and liquid chromatography of hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils. J. Chromatogr. A 936, 159-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)01222-5

Moukal A. 2004. L'arganier, argania spinosa L. (Skeels), usage therapeutique, cosmetique et alimentaire. Phytoterapie 2, 135–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10298-004-0041-2

Norme Marocaine. PNM 08.5.090. 2003. Corps gras d'origines animale et végétale. Huiles d'argane spécifications. Ministry of Industry, Trade, Energy and Mines. Rabat, 2003.

Perez-Camino MC, Cert A, Romero-Segura A, Cert-Trujillo R, Moreda W. 2008. Alkyl esters of fatty acids a useful tool to detect soft deodorized olive oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 6740-6744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf801131b PMid: 18642925

Perez-Camino MC, Moreda W, Mateos R, Cert A. 2002. Determination of esters of fatty acids with low molecular weight alcohols in olive oils. J. Agric. Food Chem 50, 4721-4725. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf025542+ PMid: 12137504

Rezanka T, Rezanková H. 1999. Characterization of fatty acids and triacylglycerols in vegetable oils by gas chromatography and statistical analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta. 398, 253-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(99)00385-2

Ruiz-Méndez MV, Ramos-Hinojosa ÁE. 2003. Fatty acid esters with short-chain alcohols in two-phase olive pomace oils. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 105, 346–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200390072

Webster L, Simpson P, Shanks AM, Moffat CF. 2000. The authentication of olive oil on the basis of hydrocarbon concentration and composition. The Analyst 125, 97-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/a907036b

Yaghmur A, Aserin A, Mizrahi Y, Nerd A, Garti N. 2001. Evaluation of argan oil for deep-fat frying. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol .34, 124-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/fstl.2000.0697

Zabaras D. 2010. Olive oil adulteration with hazelnut oil and analytical approaches for its detection, en Victor R. Preedy and Ronald Ross (Eds.) Olives and Olive Oil in Health and Disease Prevention. Elsevier Inc., págs. 441-450.

Zougagh M, Salghi R, Dhair S, Rios A. 2011. Nanoparticle-based assay for the detection of virgin argan oil adulteration and its rapid quality evaluation. Anal. Bioanal Chem. 399, 2395-2405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-4628-1 PMid: 21221541




Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact us grasasyaceites@ig.csic.es

Technical support soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es