Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions
Keywords:Fatty acids, Lettuce, Lipids, Sterols, Tocopherols, Triacylglycerols
Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30) were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively) to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized by high contents of linoleic and oleic acids. Of the triacyl glycerols determined, those containing linoleyl and oleyl acyles are the major ones. The whole sterol profiles include β-sitosterol (as major component) followed by 7-stigmasterol, campesterol and 5-stigmasterol, which were found in all the lettuce seed oil samples but with slight differences. Furthermore, sterol patterns of the free and acylated sterols, free and acylated sterylglycosides were determined. It was found that LS30 oil has the highest tocopherol content and α-tocopherol is the only constituent in all the lettuce seed oil samples. On the other hand, the 2-position in the lettuce seed oil samples is mainly acylated by unsaturated fatty acids (98.6%) namely, oleic and linoleic acids. According to these results, it can be concluded that irrigation conditions do not affect the lipid constituents of the oil and the oil lettuce plant resists draught and its lipid profiles are in agreement with those of conventional vegetable oils.
Christie WW. 1973. The preparation of volatile derivatives of lipids. in Lipid Analysis. Chapter 4, Pergamon press, pp.85-102.
Clark J. 1996. Tocopherols and sterols from soybean. Lipid Technol. 8, 111-114.
El-Din Ahmed A, EL- Ghazouly Maged G, Abou Donia Amin H. 1987. Phytochemical Study of Lactuca Salinga L. Growing in Egypt. Alexandria J. Pharm. Sci. 1, 5-7.
El-Hamdy AH, Perkins EG 1981. High performance reversed phase chromatography of natural triglyceride mixtures: critical pair separation. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 58, 867-872. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02672960
El-Mallah HM, El-Shami SM, Hassanein Minar MM. 2003. Studies of Lipid Profiles of Vitis Vinifera (Grape) and Lactuca Scariola (Oil Lettuce) Seed Oils in Comparison with those of Soybean Oil. Mansuora University J. Agric. Sci. 28, 3179-3187.
El-Mallah MH, Murui T, El-Shami SM. 1999. New trends in determining the authenticity of corn oil. Grasas Aceites. 50, 7-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.1999.v50.i1.629
El-Mallah MH, Murui T, El-Shami SM. 1994. Detailed studies on seed oil of silicornia SOS-7 cultivated at the Egyptain border of Red Sea. Grasas Aceites. 45, 385-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.1994.v45.i6.1036
El-Shami S, Hassanein MM, Murui T, El-Mallah MH. 1994. Studies of changes in patterns of fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols of oil during seed maturation part 1: sunflower seeds. Grasas Aceites 45, 227-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.1994.v45.i4.999
Gunstone FD, Harwood LJ, Padly BF. 1986. The Lipid Hand Book. Chapman& Hall. Cambridge. P. 571.
Kamal-Eldein A, Appeleqvist AL. 1996. The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Lipids 31, 671-701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02522884
Ling WH, Jones PJ.1995. Dietary phytosterols: a review of metabolism, benefits and side effects. Life Sci. 57, 195-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(95)00263-6
McClave JT, Benson, PG.1991. Statistics for Business and Economics, Max Well Macmillian International Editions. Dellen Publishing Co. USA, pp. 272-295.
Mekki BB, El- Kholy MA, Mohamed EM. 1998. Effect of Folair Application of Potassin-P and Plant Spacing on Seed Yield, Oil and Fatty Acid Contents of Prickly Oil Lettuce (Lactuca Scariola L.) 8th Con.Agron. Suez Canal Univ. Ismailia, Egypt 28-29 Nov.
Mekki BB, Orabi SA. 2007. Risponse of Prickly Oil Lettuce (Lactuca Scariola L.) to Uniconazole and Irrigation with Diluted Seawater. Am. Eurasian Agric. Environ. Sci. 2, 611-618.
Moreau RA, Whitaker BD, Hicks KB. 2002. Phytosterols and their conjugates in foods: Structural diversity quantitative analysis, and health- promoting uses. Prog. Lipid Res. 41, 457-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7827(02)00006-1
Murui T, Wanaka, K, Kuriyama K. 1993. Determination of sterylglycosides as their 1- anthroylnitrile derivatives. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 25, 614-617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.57.614
Murui T, Yoshikawa M, Takeuchi H, Fujii S, Mizobuchi H.1994. Effect of sterylglycosides from soybean on lipid indices in the plasma, liver, and feces of rats. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 58, 494-497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.58.494
Official and Tentative Methods of the American Oil chemists society.1980. 3rd ed. AOCS, Chicago, Illinois. Osman F, Ashourm AE, Gad AM 1973. Glyceride structure of Egyptian vegetable oils. Planta Med. 24, 53-60.
Rafi A, Tufail MQ. 1991. Studies of Lactuca Scariola Seed Oil. Sci.Int. (Lahore) 3, 67-68.
Wanaka K, Murui T. 1992. Determination of sterols in edible oils and fats by HPLC with fluorescence labeling. Yukagaku, 40, 306-311.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.