Physicochemical properties of red palm oil extruded potato and sweet potato snacks




Extrusion, Micronutrients, Oxidation stability, Potato, Red palm oil, Sweet potato


Extruded potato (P) and sweet potato (SP) products with red palm oil (RPO) were prepared under different conditions. Superior product characteristics such as sensory score, expansion ratio, and water solubility index, among others, were obtained at high extrusion temperature (150-155 °C) and low water feed rate to the extruder (50.4-50.8 mL/min). The optimal products, P1 and SP1, had high micronutrients as their total contents of β-carotene, squalene, tocopherols, and tocotrienols were 883.2, 304.4, 262.4, and 397.0 mg/kg of oil, respectively. The average peroxide value was 4.3 meq O2/kg oil, p-anisidine value 3.3, and induction period (100 °C) 11.4 h. Moreover, RPO extruded with P showed a better extrusion behavior but lower micronutrient retention and oxidative stability than that extruded with SP. Thus, the finding herein is important for investigating extrusion conditions, increasing variety, improving nutritional quality, assessing applicability and predicting the shelf-life of RPO-P/SP-extruded food.


Download data is not yet available.


Ali S, Singh B, Sharma S. 2017. Development of high-quality weaning food based on maize and chickpea by twin-screw extrusion process for low-income populations. J. Food Process. Eng. 40, UNSP e12500.

AACC. 2002. Official methods of American Association of Cereal Chemists. 10th edition, Minnesota, USA.

AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th edition, Washington DC, USA.

AOCS. 1997. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 5th edition, Champaign, USA.

Bai J, Peng YJ, Liu L, Li YM, Zhang XF, Jin Y, Zhang Q, Tian X, Guo H. 2018. Extrusion properties and quality properties of different potato materials. Chin. Food Sci. 39, 48-53.

Buton GW, Ingold KU. 1984. beta-Carotene: An unusual type of lipid antioxidant. Sci. 224, 569. PMid:6710156

Chan H. 1987. Autoxidation of unsaturated lipids. Academic Press, London.

Ding QB, Ainsworth P, Plunkett A, Tucker G, Marson H. 2006. The effect of extrusion conditions on the functional and physical properties of wheat-based expanded snacks. J. Food. Eng. 73, 142-148.

Ekwenye UN. 2006. Chemical characteristics of palm biodeterioration. Biokemistri 18, 141-149.

Hamid AA, Dek MSP, Tan CP. 2014. Changes of major antioxidant compounds and radical scavenging activity of palm oil and rice bran oil during deep-frying. Antioxidants 3, 502-515. PMid:26785067 PMCid:PMC4665415

Kamaleldin A, Appelqvist LA. 1996. The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Lipids 31, 671-701. PMid:8827691

Klibanov A. 1986. Enzymes that work in organic solvents. Chem. Tech. 6, 354-359.

Kowalski B, Ratusz K, Kowalska D. 2004. Determination of the oxidative stability of vegetable oils by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Rancimat measurements. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 106, 165-169.

Mba OI, Dumont MJ, Ngadi M. 2015. Palm oil: Processing, characterization and utilization in the food industry-A review. Food Biosci. 10, 26-41.

Ogrodowska D, Zadernowski R, Czaplicki S, Derewiaka D, Wronowska B. 2014. Amaranth seeds and products-the source of bioactive compounds. Pol. J. Food. Nutr. Sci. 64, 165-170.

Olajide TM, Liu T, Liu HA, Weng XC. 2020. Antioxidant properties of two novel lipophilic derivatives of hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem. 315, 126197. PMid:32018079

Pan KL, Ji M, Hu MM, OOI C. 2016. Analysis of nutritional components for red palm oil. Chin. Cereals and Oils 29, 79-81.

Qian C, Decker EA, Xiao H. 2012. Physical and chemical stability of beta-carotene-enriched nanoemulsions: Influence of pH, ionic strength, temperature, and emulsifier type. Food Chem. 132, 1221-1229. PMid:29243604

Reddy LH, Couvreur P. 2009. Squalene: A natural triterpene for use in disease management and therapy. Adv. Drug Deliver Rev. 61, 1412-1426. PMid:19804806

Rossi M, Alamprese C, Ratti S. 2007. Tocopherols and tocotrienols as free radical-scavengers in refined vegetable oils and their stability during deep-fat frying. Food Chem. 102, 812-817.

Schroeder MT, Becker EM, Skibsted LH. 2006. Molecular mechanism of antioxidant synergism of tocotrienols and carotenoids in palm oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (9), 3445-3453. PMid:16637706

Sidhu JS, Al-Hooti SN, Al-Saqer JM, Al-Amiri HA, Al-Foudari M, Al-Othman A, Ahmad A, Al-Haji L, Ahmed N, Mansor IB, Minal J. 2004. Developing functional foods using red palm olein: Pilot-scale studies. Int. J. Food Prop. 7, 1-13.

Singh S, Gamlath S, Wakeling L. 2007. Nutritional aspects of food extrusion: a review. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 42, 916-929.

Spinello AM, Leonel M, Mischan MM, Carmo EL. 2014. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks. Cienc. Agrotec. 38, 68-75.

Thymi S, Krokida MK, Pappa A. 2005. Structural properties of extruded corn starch. J. Food Eng. 68, 519-526.

Victoria-Campos CI, Ornelas-Paz J, De J, Yahia EM, Failla ML. 2013. Effect of the interaction of heat-processing style and fat type on the micellarization of lipid-soluble pigments from green and red pungent peppers (Capsicum annuum). J. Agr. Food Chem. 61, 3642-3653. PMid:23517119

Wan LT, Li L, Jiao WJ, Mao LL, Li B, Zhang X. 2018. Effect of barrel temperature and moisture content on the composition and oxidative stability of extruded palm oil in an oil-starch model system. Lwt-Food Sci. Technol. 98, 398-405.

Wichchukit S, O'Mahony M. 2015. The 9-point hedonic scale and hedonic ranking in food science: some reappraisals and alternatives. J. Sci. Food Agric. 95, 2167-2178. PMid:25378223

Yao SW, Xie SY, Jiang LZ, Li L. 2017. Effect of dandelion extract, sucrose and starter culture on the viscosity, water-holding capacity and pH of plain yogurt. Mljekarstvo 67, 305-311.

Zhang H, Xu F, Wu Y, Hu HH, Dai XF. 2017. Progress of potato staple food research and industry development in China. J. Integr. Agric. 16, 2924-2932.



How to Cite

Liu Y, Olajide T, Sun M, Ji M, Yoong J, Weng X. Physicochemical properties of red palm oil extruded potato and sweet potato snacks. grasasaceites [Internet]. 2021Jun.3 [cited 2022Oct.7];72(2):e412. Available from:




Funding data

Malaysian Palm Oil Board
Grant numbers PORTSIM 054/2017